The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of hydro alcoholic extract and supernatant fraction of the roots of Anogeissus leiocarpus, a plant used by traditional healers to treat Diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozocin to Sprague Dawley rats under a fructose-enriched fat diet. Diabetic rats were treated with 500 mg/kg of total extract and 100 mg/kg of supernatant. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by measuring blood glucose level, lipid profile, insulin and biochemical parameters together with the antioxidant potential.
The administration of total extract and supernatant exhibited significant decrease (p < 0.01) of the blood glucose level in the diabetic rats after 7 days of treatment compared to the diabetic rats. A significant reduction of cholesterol level (19.7%) and triglycerides level (56.7%) was observed in the treated diabetic rats. The levels of insulin did not differ across all the groups. However, compared to diabetic rats, HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin-resistance) and HOMA-β (Homeostasis Model Assessment for β cell function) showed a statistical decrease in insulin resistance and an increase in pancreatic β cell function in the treated diabetic rats. Moreover, total extract and supernatant significantly increased GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation. In comparison, the supernatant fraction exerted stronger antidiabetic and antioxidant effects than the total extract.
Hence, the roots of A. leiocarpus are a potent antidiabetic agent that can be developed as an alternative medicine for diabetes and its complications.