Neutrophils play a crucial role in protection against intracellular pathogens such as viruses and mycobacteria but also in regulating systemic anaphylaxis or allergic skin reactions. Neutrophils intimately shape the adaptive immune response at various levels, including B cells, dendritic cells, and T cell populations. Significant attention in pharmacy is given to the search for natural substances that can affect the immune system and neutrophil function, with less adverse side effects. The phytoconstituents, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, or terpenes, may serve as good candidates. Previously, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of various plant extracts of the Iridaceae family, and identified extracts of Iris spp. rhizomes and Crocus sativum corms as promising anti-neutrophilic agents. The current study further extends the analysis of various groups of biologically active substances in extracts from Ukrainian plants. The tested samples include polysaccharide complexes of Crocus flowers and corms, Juno leaves and corms, Iris leaves and rhizomes, or Chamaenerion leaves; as well as water and ethanolic extracts Chamaenerion leaves. Using fMLF/CB-induced superoxide anion generation and elastase release assays in human neutrophils, C. angustifolium ethanolic (50%, vol/vol) and water extracts almost completely inhibited fMLF/CB-induced elastase release at 10 μg/mL (IC50 2.8-4.1 μg/mL). Interestingly, also Iris leaf polysaccharide extract inhibited elastase release by 39.0% (10 μg/mL), while C. angustifolium polysaccharides extract inhibited superoxide by 45.5% (10 μg/mL). This suggests that phenolic compounds may possess better activity in comparison to polysaccharides. The present study provided primary pharmacological evidence for anti-inflammatory agents from C. angustifolium.
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