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Types of EMG Textile Electrodes: a comparative study using PCA
* 1, 2 , 1 , 3 , 1
1  Centre for Textile Science and Engineering, Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
2  Jimma Institute of Technology (JiT), School of Materials science and Engineering, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia
3  Jimma Institute of Technology (JiT), School of Biomedical Engineering, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia
Academic Editor: Sara Tombelli


Identifying a suitable textile electrode that would be durable and assist in recording high bio-signal quality is crucial in the production of medical devices. Therefore, this study aimed to compare silver-plated-polyamide-embroidered cotton (SPEC), copper-nickel-plated polyester (CNP), and stainless-steel-fabric (SSF) dry textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes through principal component analysis (PCA). Each electrode was also compared against standard silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) gel electrodes. The output was analyzed based on multi variables extracted from EMG features such as root mean square (RMS) voltage, average rectified value (ARV) voltage, kurtosis, and skewness using activation of the bicep, and tibialis anterior muscles group. The SSF electrode outperformed CNP and SPEC electrodes. Without applying any boundary conditions, each textile electrode has signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values comparable to the standard electrode. The SNR values were 24.38 dB, 17.72 dB, 15.55 dB, and 13.30 dB, for Ag/AgCl, SSF, CNP and SPEC electrodes, respectively. The performance of all the conductive textile electrodes was comparable to that of Ag/AgCl. However, the gel electrode requires skin preparation and has short-term stability, whereas textile electrode materials last longer and can be used for biological signal monitoring at home without the assistance of medical professionals.

Keywords: stainless steel; copper-nickel-plated polyester; embroidery; EMG Signal Analysis, PCA
Comments on this paper
Earl Harding
Commercial myoelectric prostheses are expensive to acquire and maintain dinosaur game, making their provision in developing nations difficult. Recent research suggests that embroidered EMG electrodes may be a more cost-effective alternative to the sensors currently used in prostheses.
Earl Harding
Two sets of surface electrodes are used for the experiments dinosaur game, one set of gel electrodes and one set of embroidered textile electrodes.
Bulcha Etana
I appreciate your question and suggestions.
We used commercial polyester material and stainless steel conductive fabric and built our own embroidered electrode.
Finding the conductive fabric  that most closely resembles the gel electrode is the goal.
Even without a laboratory to develop it, embroidered electrodes can be made by hand.