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Indoor Air Quality Assessment Using a Low-Cost Sensor: A Case Study of Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria
1 , 1 , * 2
1  Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Education, Science, and Technology, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria
2  Environmental and Sustainable Research Group (ESRG), Science and Education Development Institute, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani


Individuals who use the majority of their period of time indoors are especially sensitive to indoor air quality (IAQ), which has a significant impact on their general well-being and health. Traditional IAQ measurement techniques, however, are frequently pricy, complicated, and labor-intensive. In this study, we used a low-cost, simple-to-use, and handy sensor system to track the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10), temperature and relative humidity (RH) in a laboratory at the Bamidele Olomilua University of Education, Science, and Technology in Ikere-Ekiti for a month. We contrasted the outcomes with other benchmarks and WHO recommendations. However, the NO2 levels (144.00-303.00 ppb) exceeded the suggested levels (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) - 70 ppb; National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) - 100 ppb; National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) - 120 ppb); and World Health Organization (WHO) - 25 ppb), suggesting a possible cause of indoor contaminants. We also noticed that the temperature and humidity varied considerably all through the day, which had an impact on the inhabitants' thermal comfort and ventilation. The PCA findings indicate that particulate matter, the weather, photochemical reactions, and combustion processes are the key contributors to fluctuation in the air quality measurements. Based on their quantities and relationships, these elements can have a variety of effects on both the natural environment as well as well-being. Our monitoring device can give immediate information and warnings, assisting in locating and reducing indoor airborne pollutants sources and enhancing their indoor air quality (IAQ). This work shows that adopting a low-cost sensor system for IAQ measurement in underdeveloped nations, where such data are sparse and frequently erroneous, is both feasible and beneficial.

Keywords: Air pollution; Particulate matter; Principal component analysis; Meteorological factors; Low-cost sensor; Nigeria