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The IPANEMA Project: underwater acoustic structure for volcanic activity and natural CO2 emissions monitoring
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1  INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud
Academic Editor: Jean-marc Laheurte


Carbon dioxide produced by human activities (use of fossil fuels, deforestation and livestock farming) is the main greenhouse gas causing global warming. In 2020 the concentration in the atmosphere exceeded the pre-industrial level by 48% (before 1750). Carbon capture and storage (CCS), in underground geological formations, represents a key technology to counter CO2 emissions. Monitoring techniques, essential to ensure that there are no leaks from the storage site, can be refined through the study of natural CO2 emissions due to volcanic activity: this is the main goal of the IPANEMA project which provide for the monitoring, through underwater acoustic techniques, of the volcanic activity in the Mediterranean Sea. Through the installation of two underwater acoustic stations, one in Panarea and one in the gulf of Catania, we want to investigate techniques for estimating the flux of CO2 emitted by natural sources, for locating the emission sources and, in general, for the monitoring of volcanic activity.

Keywords: IPANEMA project; Carbon dioxide; volcanic activity; underwater acoustics; monitoring techniques