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Remote Sensing Biological Pump Potential: A Plankton Spatio-Temporal Modelling in the Philippine Seas
* 1, 2, 3, 4 , 1, 5
1  University of the Philippines Open University, Los Banos, Philippines
2  Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS Pavia, Pavia, Italia
3  Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (DICEA), Universit√† degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italia
4  Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ateneo de Naga University, Naga, Philippines
5  Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of the Philippines Tacloban College, Tacloban City, Philippines
Academic Editor: Riccardo Buccolieri (registering DOI)

Current carbon sequestration technologies are not meeting targets to deliver the 2050 global net zero goal. Hence, the increasing campaign in nature-based solutions (NBS) rather than depending on engineered sequestration technologies, which is by far harder to scale up. Though amplifying the NBS that are already inherent in the environment is a matter of increased activities, the current changing climatic conditions made it complicated such as site-targeted mangrove rehabilitation, regenerative forestry, and restorative agriculture. These land-based solutions comprise approximately half of the global total carbon sequestered, while the other 50% is naturally sinking in the ocean deep.

Harnessing potential ocean productivity is a huge leap in the world’s carbon sequestration thrust. Not only does this process happen in the natural world, but quantification, monitoring, and forecasting activities can aid future policymaking to amplify productivity in our ocean–which is also expected to serve as a driver to the placement of programs geared toward water quality preservation, conservation, and treatment in inland waters. This study focuses on the quantification and forecasting of the Biological Pump potential in the Philippine Sea, specifically inside the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Variabilities and disturbances such as increased sea surface temperature, and considering the geographic location of the Philippines, receiving high frequency of annual typhoons, were investigated to affect ocean productivity. Spatio-temporal maps were generated to provide visualization for the trends and phenomena before, during, and after typhoon occurrence for the years 2019 until 2021. The normal scenario for typhoons was reflected in 2019 while both 2020 and 2021 years recorded rare high-intensity supertyphoons Rolly (Goni) and Odette (Rai), while is respectively. NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) Ocean Color data were used to produce spatiotemporal maps for both chlorophyll (CHL) and Sea surface temperature (SST). Correlating these maps with typhoon occurrence, and SST, the Biological Pump potential annual estimate was generated.

Keywords: image processing; biological pump potential; environmental monitoring; remote sensing; forecasting planktons; plankton carbon sequestration
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