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Sea Slag-Inspired Modification of Carbon Nanoparticles
1, 2 , * 1
1  St Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, St Petersburg, Russia
2  St Petersburg Academic University, St Petersburg, Russia
Academic Editor: Luca Patanè


It is well known that some living organisms use different adaptation mechanisms to survive and thrive1. One of the outstanding examples of adaptation are marine gastropod mollusks Elysia marginata and Elysia atroviridis (sea slags)2. After being decapitated, these living organisms have an ability not only to survive but also to revive and grow again. These invertebrates inspire us to conduct a modification of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) containing Csp2-hybridized carbons using cyclooligosiloxanes containing redox-active metallocenes. In the CNP modification, the cyclooligosiloxanes containing redox-active metallocenes at first lose some of their parts (cyclopentadienyl ring) in the presence of the catalytic mixture, and coordinate to a wall of CNPs. Then, these cyclooligosiloxanes undergo cationic ring opening polymerization catalysis by one of the components of the catalytic mixture, and a polysiloxane chain grows.

The successful modification of CNPs using (poly)siloxanes containing redox-active metallocenes was confirmed by means of Raman and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopies and transmission electron microscopy. The modified CNPs have good compatibility with the polysiloxane matrix and an improved distribution in it.

In this mollusk-inspired modification of CNPs, along with the grafting of the polysiloxane chain on the surface of carbon nanotubes, we introduced redox-active centers on the surface of the CNPs. This, in turn, significantly broadened the application of the modified CNPs as promising components of electrochemical sensors, biosensors3 and energy storage devices4.

The authors acknowledge St Petersburg State University for a research project 95408157.


  1. Sarabian, C., et al. "Disgust in animals and the application of disease avoidance to wildlife management and conservation." Anim. Ecol.(2023).
  2. Mitoh, S., et al. "Extreme Autotomy and Whole-Body Regeneration in Photosynthetic Sea Slugs." Biol. (2021).
  3. Saleem, M., et al. "Review on Synthesis of Ferrocene-Based Redox Polymers and Derivatives and Their Application in Glucose Sensing." (2015).
  4. Ali, A. M., et al. Ferrocene Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Supercapacitor Electrodes. " J. Mol. Liq. (2020).
Keywords: bioinspiration; carbon nanoparticles; Raman spectroscopy