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In vivo management of Salmonella gallinarum infection using CuO and ZnO nanoparticles as antibacterial agents
* 1 , 2 , 3
1  Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
2  Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.
3  Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.
Academic Editor: John Luong


Introduction: The poultry industry is a major contributor to global food security, providing a huge amount of dietary protein. Its rapid expansion has played a crucial role in addressing food shortages worldwide. However, infectious diseases remain a significant challenge in the poultry industry, leading to reduced production and an increased economic burden. Antibiotics are widely used to overcome the problem of infectious diseases, which leads to antimicrobial resistance. Developing new antimicrobial drugs is crucial to combating antimicrobial resistance. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles exhibit promising antimicrobial activity against bacteria. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles against Salmonella gallinarum.

Methods: Ninety one-day-old chicks were divided equally into six groups: negative control, positive control, FLOR-A, CZNP-1, CZNP-2, and CZNP-3. On the 19th day, all the groups except the negative control group were challenged with S. gallinarum. Following the onset of clinical signs, treatment consisting of Florfenicol (50mg/L) for group FLOR-A and CuO and ZnO nanoparticles for groups CZNP-1, CZNP-2, and CZNP-3 was administered at varying doses: 10 + 25, 15 + 37.5, and 20 + 50 mg/kg/d, respectively. Live body weight, carcass weight, relative organ weight, and the ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine levels were determined. The collected data were analyzed using an ANOVA technique with a completely randomized design.

Results: The results revealed that the feed conversion ratio improved (p < 0.001), the live body weight and carcass weight increased (p < 0.001), and the relative organ weight and serum concentrations of ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea decreased (p < 0.001) after treatment with CuO and ZnO nanoparticles in the treatment groups.

Conclusion: The study concluded that CuO and ZnO nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial activity against S. gallinarum and can serve as a substitute for Florfenicol. Optimal efficacy was observed with CuO and ZnO nanoparticles at a dose level of 15 + 37.5 mg/kg/d.

Keywords: Fowl typhoid; Copper oxide; Zinc oxide; Nanoparticles; Broiler growth; Liver and kidney function