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Some Aspects of Sustainable Energy Conversion During Transient Processes in Electric Power Systems Comprising Generator Circuit Breakers
Published: 31 October 2013 by MDPI in The 3rd World Sustainability Forum session Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources
Abstract: This paper is a sequel to a study by the authors of the electric power systems comprising the generator circuit-breakers (GCBs) at power plant generator terminals. A sustainable assessment of the current interruption requirements of a GCB addresses the main stresses on the generator circuit breaker, revealing that the GCB current interruption requirements are significantly higher than for the distribution network circuit breakers. Hence, generator circuit-breakers are subject to unique demanding conditions caused my specific stresses, namely: high asymmetrical fault currents resulting from high d.c. components of the fault current; greater electrical, thermal and mechanical stresses when interrupting longer arcing time faults; and important dielectric stress after the electric arc extinction caused by the transient recovery voltage (TRV). This paper extends other studies of the authors of the energetic and exergetic transformation chain at the interruption current transient process in an electric power system that comprises the generator circuit-breaker, as well as the transient recovery voltage (TRV) which appears after the interruption of a short-circuit fed by the synchronous generator or by the main step-up transformer. For achieving the TRV equivalent configuration the authors applied the method of operational symmetrical components (o.s.c.), and utilized the operational impedances of synchronous generator and of main transformer, depending on the fault location. Modeling the transient recovery voltage of circuits emphasizes aspects with direct implications on commutation equipment. Thus, the o.s.c. method can be applied at the poles of any breaker, for any eliminated fault type, if the network configuration and elements are known. The TRV, which appears after the interruption of a short-circuit fed by the generator, may be considered like an oscillation, where the oscillation factor and the rising rate (RR) of the TRV are established by the electrical machine parameters: resistance, inductance and capacitance. Consequently, modeling of concentrated equivalent parameters of the synchronous generator at perturbations caused by current interruption transient processes is achieved in this study through an approach based on sustainability concepts. These findings allow for simulations of the transient recovery voltage and comparisons with experimental results.
Keywords: electric arc; generator circuit-breaker; short-circuit; sustainability concepts, synchronous generator; transient recovery voltage