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Energy Research, Sustainable Development and Applications in Sudan
Abstract: People will have to rely upon mineral oil for primary energy and this will go on for a few more decades. Other conventional sources of energy may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural energy supplies. A major advantage of using the renewable energy sources is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources and with the advantage of local maintenance which can encourage local manufacturing that can give a boost to the building of small-scale rural based industries. This article gives a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development in Sudan. It reviews the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This article gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise interchangeability both of engine parts and of the engine application. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacturing of some of the energy systems. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas of many developing nations.
Keywords: Renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, sustainable development, emissions, environment