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Analysis of Radio Wave Propagation for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks in Inhomogeneous Vegetation Environments
Abstract: The use of wireless networks has been extended in an exponential growing due to the improvement in terms of battery life and low consumption of the devices. However, it is highly important to conduct previous radio propagation analysis when deploying a wireless sensor network. These studies are necessary to perform an estimation of the range coverage, in order to optimize the distance between devices in an actual network deployment. In this work, the radio channel characterization for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in an inhomogeneous vegetation environment has been analyzed. The impact of topology as well as morphology of the environment is assessed by means of an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching code, to emulate the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. Experimental results gathered from a measurements campaign conducted by deploying a ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network, are analyzed and compared with simulations in this paper. The scenario where this network is intended to operate is a combination of buildings and diverse vegetation species. To gain insight in the effects of radio propagation, a simplified vegetation model has been developed, considering the material parameters and simplified geometry embedded in the simulation scenario. The use of deterministic tools can aid to know the impact of the topological influence in the deployment of the optimal Wireless Sensor Network in terms of capacity, coverage and energy consumption, making the use of these systems attractive for multiple applications in inhomogeneous vegetation environments.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, vegetation environment, 3D Ray Launching