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Changing green space governance for urban regeneration: A transition perspective on urban district parks in Seoul
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1  Yonsei University

Abstract: Within smart urbanism, green spaces and parks in the city are important factors to improve the urban environment and citizen's quality of life. In the past, urban parks had functions of environmental conservation, citizen recreation and/or identity (memorials), and they were usually planned for, funded and maintained by local governments. Increasingly, however, urban parks are subject to changes in meaning, identity, functions and governance, liked to urban regeneration, climate change adaptation and mitigation and wider sustainability goals. Thus, this article discusses from a transition perspective 'how the social-ecological system of urban district parks in Seoul Metropolitan Area has fundamentally changed in the past decade.' It examines how innovations in local green space provision have emerged, and how these have triggered shifts in the relations between local government, civil society organizations, private businesses and citizens. It analyzes how different social needs and objectives, including education, improved health and physical recreation, food provision and community building, have provided new domains of interaction in this. It also recognizes the related shifts in urban ecosystems, infrastructures, regulation and society, fostering a wider awareness of climate change and urban regeneration issues, while also enhancing local quality of life through ecological place making for citizens. From this research, we will identify the key drivers and barriers of the observed transition, and suggest how cities should consider these in their planning for sustainable urban regeneration.
Keywords: Transition, Urban regeneration, Climate change, District Park, Sustainability