Please login first
Biospherical Compatibility - the Way of Reciprocal Development of the Mankind and Nature
1  Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science



The problem of biospherical compatibility of cities is being studied in Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science during the last decade. This problem is discussed in the paper from both civilizational and philosophical points of view.

Method of comparing the duration of survival of civilization , with its attitude towards the natural environment.

According to the investigations of Kuzik and Yakovetz [1] about 25 civilizations existed during the last 5 thousand years, for example Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Roma and many others. But only two of them are vivid up today at the same place with the same ethnos- they are India and China which are the symbols of Eastern civilizations.

These great countries consider Nature as the God, of course in different manners. The very powerful imperator in China was only the Son of Heaven. Gods in India represented some visible part of surrounding space from local territory up to cosmos. By the way, Indian Sanskrit is very close to Russian language, and some Sanskrit’s Gods have practically the same names as ancient Slavic Gods before the Christian age.

So, people and authority of China and India consider priority of Nature before humankind, hence people should serve Nature.

People in the West believe that they can use and reorganize Nature, because Nature is created for mankind’s needs. People in the West are extraverted, they try first to understand the World and then, they try to comprehend themselves. People in the East are introverted and they try first to grasp themselves and then, they try to understand the world.

Both civilizations know all about the World and Humankind but their knowledge are quite different and theirs ways of learning are just opposite.

Last half of the century western scientists [2] spoke more and more about ecological problems, sustainable development and so on.

We also started our investigation with the fact that the Nature created a human being, hence people are the element of Nature and they have to serve their Mother. Following to I. A. Malmigin we made the next step, we supposed that the Biosphere is a vivid creature, which mankind may have conversations with. This assumptions has no practical influence at the moment, but nevertheless it is very important for future.

Results and Discussion

Combining modern knowledge and some ideas of both civilizations we worked out the paradigm of biospherical compatibility of cities which would develop people. The result is a matrix with 3x3 elements presented in [3].

  1. Symbiosis of cities and the Nature, According of Consciousness;
  2. Comparison of external (exploitation of resources, waste disposal) and internal (human potential) aspects of city life;
  3. Humanitarian Balance of Biosphere, i.e. threefold balances of population, places for satisfying the needs of the population, Life Potential of Biosphere;
  4. Legislature fixation of Humanitarian Balance of Biotechnosphere or a phased transition towards this balance: earth, water, air, energy and social criteria;
  5. Knowledge as a basis for city management: professionalism, intelligence, information, suggestions on development, elimination of factors, hindering development. Result: Program of transformation of pathology into resource of development;
  6. Comparison of planned environmental factors and level of human development with the reality;
  7. Functions of a city which satisfy human needs: livelihood, entertainment, authorities, charity, education, creation, connection with the Nature;
  8. Reliability “Constitution” of the city and other laws, traditions of an ethnic groups, councils of elders, Social union, etc. Result, control, balance, efficiency;
  9. Cognition as a basis for policy, power structures, interactions of all with all, the holidays, style of the city.

All elements are known, but here is the system, hierarchy of subjects and each element may be calculated in one or another way. So, life of city may be presented numerically. According to the author’s opinion the main result of such approach will be possibility to predict in volume what happened if one or other ruling decision to realize, reaching the global aim- biospherically compatible city, developing people. Compatible means preventing ecological disasters for centuries. Summarized results of calculations on several cities in Russia presented in the book [4].


This approach may lead to many unusual consequences and for example there is pair of them.

People can’t produce water, sand, air, oil, etc. All these resources are produced by Earth, and Earth is owner of then. People should buy these raw materials from the producer and owner. What is the price? According to the theory of Adam Smith the price should be sufficient for the reproduction of this materials.

To whom to pay? If we involve natural materials into economy of humanity as resources then it is necessary to recognize the Earth as a legal entity. The representative of it would be the Government of the country and Government will spend money for treatment of Nature.


The author is grateful Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science for the statement of the theme and the opportunity to conduct research.

References and Notes

  1. Kuzik B.N., Yakovetz Yu.V. Civilizations: theory, history, dialog, future. Moscow. Institute of economic strategy, 2006
  2. D.H. Meadows, J. Randers, D.L. Meadows. Limits to Growth. The 30-years Update. Chealsea Green Publishing Company. White River Junction. Vermont, 2004.
  3. V.A. Ilychev, The guidelines for creating a new city structure which would be compatible with the Biosphere and make for the development of man. Ӧsterreichishe Ingenieur- und Architekten-Zeitschrift, 157. Jahrgang Heft 1-6/2012.
  4. Principles of transforming of cities into biospherical compatible and developing man. V.A. Ilyichev, S.G. Emelyanov, V.I. Kolchunov, V.A. Gordon, N.V. Bakaeva. Scientific issuu, - Moscow, Publishing House ASV, 2015-184 p.
Keywords: Biospherical compatability