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Four methods of extraction in leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia and their effects in gastrointestinal smooth muscle strips
* 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 , 5 , 6
1  Facultad de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, San Francisco de Campeche, Mexico
2  Instituto Tecnológico de Chetumal. Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico
3  Escuela de Técnico Laboratoristas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
4  Centro de Investigaciones Históricas y Sociales, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, San Francisco de Campeche, Mexico
5  Independent Researcher, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, España.
6  CONACYT, Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico


Byrsonima crassifolia leaves were extracted via maceration (BrMa), percolation (BrPer), soxhlet (BrSox) and sonication (BrSon). Spectrophotometric estimation of chlorophylls and analysis of cumulative extraction allowed the characterization of the extraction process. Under these experimental conditions, the extraction efficiency for each method was greater than 99%. The best yield was recorded by Soxhlet (7.29±0.21%), the best extraction rate was by sonication (m: 0.032±0.004; r2: 0.96±0.02) and maceration showed less variations in the estimation of chlorophyll a and b. On the other hand, pharmacological evaluation in a rat ileum strips allowed identify that BrMa, BrPer, BrSox and BrSon reduce the spontaneous contractions (Emax: 38.54±2.03, 28.9±1.6, 31.87±1.79, and 29.09±1.27%; EC50: 11.6±2.38; 13.22±2.83; 39.74±2.64 and >50 µg/mL, respectively) of ileum strips in a concentration-dependent manner, however, the effects were significantly lower than papaverine (Emax: 59.32±2.57%; EC50: 7.11±1.0 µg/mL). These results indicated that according to extraction method there are variations in the metabolic content as well as in the pharmacological actions induced by B. crassifolia extracts. Finally, there are a low correlation between extraction temperature (r > 0.87) and spasmolytic activity.

Keywords: Byrsonima crassifolia, maceration, chlorophyll, ileum strips