Metal−organic frameworks, or MOFs, have emerged as an extensive class of crystalline materials with ultrahigh porosity (up to 90% free volume) and enormous internal surface areas, extending beyond 6000 m2/g. These properties, together with the extraordinary degree of variability for both the organic and inorganic components of their structures, make MOFs of interest for potential applications in clean energy, most significantly as storage media for gases such as hydrogen and methane, and as high-capacity adsorbents to meet various separation needs. Additional applications in membranes, thin film devices, catalysis, and biomedical imaging are increasingly gaining importance. On a fundamental level, MOFs epitomize the beauty of chemical structures and the power of combining organic and inorganic chemistry, two disciplines often regarded as disparate. Since the 1990s, this area of chemistry has experienced an almost unparalleled growth, as evidenced by not only the sheer number of research papers published but also the ever-expanding scope of the research .
Among the large family of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), Zr-based MOFs, which exhibit rich structure types, outstanding stability, intriguing properties and functions, are foreseen as one of the most promising MOF materials for practical applications. Although this specific type of MOF is still in its early stage of development, significant progress has been made in recent years. Herein, advances in Zr-MOFs since 2008 are summarized and reviewed from three aspects: design and synthesis, structure, and applications. Four synthesis strategies implemented in building and/or modifying Zr-MOFs as well as their scale-up preparation under green and industrially feasible conditions are illustrated first. Zr-MOFs with various structural types are then classified and discussed in terms of different Zr-based secondary building units and organic ligands. Finally, applications of Zr-MOFs in catalysis, molecule adsorption and separation, drug delivery, and fluorescence sensing, and as porous carriers are highlighted .
In this research, ZrCl4 and 1,4-benzene-dicarboxylic acid) H2BDC( were mixed in a very few drops of DMF (Dimethylformamide) by mechanochemical method. The characterization of the obtained metal-organic framework was conducted by XRD, FTIR, SEM.