The enterobacteria that produce β-lactamases are the main focus of infections in the healthcare environment. This is due to the difficulty they present in terms of treatment, their ease of transmission, and the impact they represent at the economic and personal level. The bacteria of greatest clinical relevance are those with resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins, extended spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC. Currently, carbapenemics are one of the few antimicrobials effective against multi-drug resistant organisms. However, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria has increased health concerns. These microorganisms include K. pneumoniae, a pan-resistant bacteria with high morbidity and mortality rates in public health facilities. In this work we have carried out a review on the antimicrobial resistance genes found in its genome, as well as the resistance mechanisms involved. Finally, we will focus on the main outbreaks causing nosocomial infections during the last years.
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