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Dual/Bi-Stage Curing of Nanocomposites from Renewable Resources upon Volumetric Expansion
Fabio Blaschke 1, 2 , Philipp Marx 1, 3 , Frank Wiesbrock * 1
1  Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH
2  Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, TU Graz, NAWI Graz
3  Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, Montanuniversitaet Leoben


Nowadays, a large part of polymers for technical application are still obtained from petrochemicals, despite the more critical review by society. In this work, novel nanodielectrics based on renewable resources were developed. For this purpose, poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), which can be referred to as pseudo-polyamides, were synthesized from renewable resources and compared with commercially available Nylon 12, which is derived from petrochemicals.

The monomers 2-nonyl-2-oxazozoline and 2-dec-9’-enyl-2-oxazoline were synthesized from coconut oil and castor oil in solvent-free syntheses according to the Henkel Patent; the copoly(2-oxazoline) was synthesized in energy-efficient fashion in microwave reactors under autoclave conditions.

Both types of polyamides (2 variations) were filled with inorganic nanoparticles (4 variations: no filler, submicro-scaled BN, nano- and micro-scaled AlN) and/or expanding monomers, namely spiro-orthoesters (3 variations: 0, 15, and 30 wt.-%), yielding a 2 x 4 x 3 = 24-membered material library. All polymers were crosslinked according to a newly developed thermally-initiated dual/bi-stage curing system.

Fundamental physico-chemical and dielectric characterization revealed that the relative volume expansion was in the range of 0.46-2.48 vol.-% for the Nylon 12 samples and in the range of 1.39-7.69 vol.-% for the POx samples. Hence, the formation micro-cracks or micro-voids during curing is significantly reduced. The dielectric measurements show competitive dielectric behaviour of the ‘green’ POx samples in comparison with the fossil-based Nylon 12 samples at a frequency of 40 Hz, rendering the pseudo-polyamides from natural resources as competitive dielectric.

Keywords: polymer from renewable resources; poly(2-oxazoline); pseudo-polyamide; nanodielectric; expanding monomer