Plant enzymes such as ficin (EC 22.214.171.124), papain (EC 126.96.36.199) and bromelain (EC 188.8.131.52) are obtained from tropical plants. These biocatalysts belong to thiol proteases, in the active center of which cysteine is contained. Ficin, papain and bromelain have a wide substrate specificity, which provides a demand for their use in various industries. Enzymes in the free state are less commonly used; immobilized biocatalysts are the preferred form. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal concentration of a crosslinking agent in the covalent immobilization of ficin, papain and bromelain on a chitosan matrix. Ficin, papain, bromelain (Sigma) were chosen as objects of study. An acid-soluble chitosan (350 kDa, Bioprogress CJSC) was used as an immobilization carrier. The concentration range of glutaraldehyde (crosslinking agent) ranged from 1 to 25%. Suitable concentration of glutaraldehyde for covalent immobilization were identified by the optimal ratio of protein content (mg per g of carrier), total activity (in units per ml of solution) and specific activity (in units per mg of protein). It was shown that for covalent immobilization of ficin and bromelain on a chitosan matrix, it is most promising to use 10 % glutaraldehyde. For immobilization of papain on chitosan by covalent means, the concentration of glutaraldehyde equal to 20 % is optimal.
This work was financially supported in the form of a grant from the President of the Russian Federation for state support to young Russian scientists - doctors of sciences (MD-1982.2020.4. Agreement 075-15-2020-325).