Please login first
Contamination status of lipophilic marine toxins in commercial shellfish from Spain, Chile and South East Pacific.
* 1, 2 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 , 3
1  Department of Production and Characterization of Novel Foods (Food Technology Area), Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL), Campus International Excellence UAM+CSIC,28049, Madrid, Spain.
2  Nutrition and Bromatology Group, CITACA, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Ourense Campus, University of Vigo, 32004, Ourense, Spain.
3  Pharmacology Deparment, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela


Lipophilic marine toxins in molluscs constitute an important threat to human health and high number of intoxications occur every year. These toxins restrict the progress of aquaculture, which is one of the fastest growing food sectors in the world. The region of Galicia (Spain), Chile and South East Pacific are commercially important producers of edible bivalve mollusc, however they have been subjected to recurring cases of shellfish farm closures in the last decade. This work aimed to study the lipophilic toxic profile of commercial shellfish (including emerging toxins) from these locations in order to establish a potential risk when ingested. For this, a total of 41 samples of Galician mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), 6 samples of mussels from Chile (Mytilus chilensis) and 6 samples of other shellfish from South East Pacific (Tawerea gayi and Meretrix lyrata ) were purchased in local markets and analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). Chromatograms from Mytilus galloprovincialis showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) and the emerging toxins 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-13) and pinnatoxin-G (PnTX-G). Data showed that OA group toxins are the main risk in Galician mollusks, which was detected in 38 samples (93%) at levels close to the legislated limit, followed by SPX-13 that was detected in 19 samples (46%) in quantities of up to 28.9 μg/kg. Analysis from PTX-2, AZA-2, and PnTX-G showed lower amounts, all below 3 μg/kg. Results also showed the presence of the emerging PnTX-G in mussels Mytilus chilensis at levels up to 5.2 μg/kg and AZA-2 and PTX-2 in clams Tawera gayi up to 4.33μg/kg and 10.88μg/kg, respectively. Despite no potential risk through mussel ingestion was found for the emerging toxins (SPX-13 and PnTX-G), there is a need for robust methodologies that can detect a wide range of known or emerging toxins in different matrix due to the geographical expansion of marine toxins.

Keywords: lipophilic marine toxins; emerging toxins; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Mytilus chilensis; Tawerea gayi and Meretrix lyrate; UPLC-MS/MS.