Interest in Curcuma longa L., a plant species also known as "Golden spice", is growing due to its several applications in various fields such as culinary, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-industry. The present work deals with the ecological conditions for the adaptation of this species, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies and biological applications as in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Investigations into the ecological conditions (soil and climate) show the possibility of an adaptation of the studied species in the eastern Mediterranean border of Algeria. Qualitative analysis of the secondary metabolites contained in rhizome extract was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), physical and chemical detection exhibiting a strong presence of polyphenols. Quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids by UV spectrophotometry revealed a content of 18.125 mg EAG (equivalent of gallic acid) g-1 for polyphenols and 5.718 mg EQ (equivalent of rutin) g-1 for flavonoids. The evaluation of the antioxidant power was carried out using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging test, which showed a greater antioxidant activity (99%) than the standards used ascorbic acid (96%) at the same concentrations. This activity is related to the rich phenols’ content, which makes it one of the most powerful antioxidants in nature. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using the disk diffusion method. The results obtained showed efficacy against most of the strains tested, even at very low doses. Based on the encouraging results obtained, it would be interesting to try the planting this species by local start-ups and enhancing it by extending the range of applications in order to isolate, purify and identify the active compound(s) responsible for this effect and develop new drugs. It would also help to face the phenomenon of germ resistance to antibiotics and find new efficient antioxidant agents.
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