Recent climate science studies reveal that limiting the world to 2ºC warming most likely requires peaking total global greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 followed by rapid reductions to near zero by 2050. Despite calls to immediately commence a rapid transformation of current fossil-fuelled energy into sustainable systems, responses from most governments remain weak and show no sense of urgency. In cases where transition plans are present, these assume that existing governance arrangements are sufficient for the transition. This paper argues that, for the transition to be rapid, inclusive, and efficient, a new governance paradigm is necessary. To elucidate such a paradigm, historical accounts of rapid institutional restructurings are examined. One of these comprises accounts of World War 2 mobilisations, where radical, rigorous and rapid institutional changes were conducted. While wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation, the paper also argues that there are limitations in the use of this analogy.
Transportation of feedstock, product and energy is key to forming the links in any supply chain. In terms of the overall environmental impact the transportation stages can also be a significant contributor. With a particular focus on energy, water and emissions, this paper examines the use of transportation to minimize environmental impacts of the supply chain, using the example of primary aluminium production from bauxite. A "radius of reduction" methodology is demonstrated using transport distance to balance the potential benefit of relocating production or utilising alternative facilities that may have better energy, emissions or resource usage. This approach is shown to be a useful tool for supply chain planning, purchasing or sales strategy, and in a broader assessment of industry potential. The ability to reduce energy and emissions are shown to be highest, while the water usage and costs associated with a carbon tax are less avoidable through relocation.
Responsible Innovation extends the scope of Responsible Care in Industry to the development of new technologies and products. In the upcoming EU HORIZON 2020 programme, Responsible Research & Innovation is expected to be an integral requirement for all EU funded projects. However, there are as yet few working instruments available for putting Responsible Innovation into practice. The presentation will review recent projects where the concept Responsible Innovation and tools for its implementation have been developed. In particular, results of the Dutch programme "Maatschappelijk Verantwoord Innoveren" of the funding council NWO and EU funded projects ObservatoryNano, NanoCode and EthicSchool will be discussed. The presentation will also cover the strategy for a follow-up project EthicSchool www.ethicschool.nl/english organising workshops and in-company training in Responsible Innovation. EthicSchool is an initiative taken by Malsch TechnoValuation, a consultancy in the area of Technology and Society: www.malsch.demon.nl. EthicSchool builds upon a former European project. This original project was funded by the European Union, contract nr. 036745, 01-09-2007-28-02-2009. Partners in this former project were Malsch TechnoValuation, University of Twente, Radboud University (NL) and TU Darmstadt, Germany.
In order to determine the influence of different cereals as green manures on organic carbon and soil physical properties, an experiment was conducted in 2011 in Khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic University (Khorasgan branch), Esfahan, Iran (latitude 32o 40/ N, longitude 51o 58/ E, and 1570 m elevation). A completely randomized block design with 3 replications was used. Green manures were included barley, rye, triticale and clover with two levels of farm yard manures namely, 30 and 60 ton/ha and one treatment of chemical fertilization as a control treatment and decomposition time of manures in two levels, the first one is one day after turning green manure to soil and the second one is 4 weeks after returning of them. Manure was mixed with soil immediately after spreading it. All crops were returned to the soil with mouldboard ploughing, before heading stage for cereal, and 10 percentage of flowering for clover, respectively. All experimental characteristics, namely, EC, pH, CaCO3, organic carbon (OC), P2O5, K2O, Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu significantly influenced by treatment. The highest EC, organic carbon, P2O5, K2O, Zn and Mn of the soil was related to application of 60 kg N/ha. The maximum pH and Fe content of soil was obtained in application of 30 kg N/ha and in a treatment in which rye was burning. The treatment in which clover was used as a green manure has obtained the highest Cu content of soil, which had significant difference with other treatments. There were no significant differences in CaCO3 among application of 30 kg N/ha, control treatment, rye as a green manure, triticale as green manure, and triticale as a green manure after four weeks. Control treatment had obtained the lowest EC, Organic carbon, P2O5, K2O, Zn, Fe and Cu of soil. Moreover, the maximum CaCO3 and Mn of soil were achieved in a treatment in which clover was used as a green manure. The treatment in which rye was used as a green manure had obtained the highest pH.
In order to evaluate the influence of plant densities on LAI, solar radiation absorption, light transmission and yield components of three spring rape seed cultivars, this research was conducted on the basis of split plot layout with completely randomized block design with 3 replications. Plant densities in main plots were 40, 80 and 120 plants per m2, and rapeseed cultivars in secondary plots were Sarigol, RGS003 and Hyola401. This research was conducted at research farm, experimental research station, Shahrekord city, Shahrekord province, Iran. Plant density had significant influence on LAI, solar radiation absorption, light transmission, the number of pods per plant and seed yield. LAI, the number of pods per plant and the number of seed per pod was significantly influenced by cultivar. Plant density and cultivar interaction had significant effect on LAI. The highest LAI, solar radiation absorption, plant height was obtained in 120 plants per m2; however, 40 plants per m2 had obtained the maximum number of pods per plant and the number of seed per pod. 80 plants per m2 had obtained the maximum seed yield. The maximum light interception also obtained by this treatment. RGS 003 had obtained the highest LAI and solar radiation absorption. Although, the maximum number of pods per plant and number of seed per pod was related to Sarigol and Hyola 401, the maximum seed yield was obtained in RGS003. So, it seems that plantation of RGS003 and 80 plants per m2 was suitable to producing high seed yield.
In order to evaluate the effects of relay cropping on yield and yield components, growth length, light interception and solar radiation depreciation of 12 varieties of winter canola, an experiment was conducted in 2006-2007 at Isfahan Agricultural Research Station as a split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots were two planting dates (27 September was normal cropping and 27 October was relay cropping), subplots were inclusive of species B. napus (Option 500, Hyola 330, Hyola 401, Sargol, Modena, SLM 046, Opera, Zarfam and RGS003), two varieties of B. rapa (Echo and Park land) and one variety of B. juncea (Land race). The highest seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield was obtained by Zarfam and Opera at normal planting date and the maximum seed yield and oil yield was related to Slm046 at relay cropping. Oil yield in Zarfam, Opera and Slm046 was 1662, 1587 and 1578 kg/ha. Planting date also had significant effect on all experimental parameters, expect of the number of days from stem elongation to ripening. The effects of cultivars were significant on the number of days from planting date to stem elongation, the number of days from stem elongation to ripening, light interception, light depreciation and LAI. The interaction between planting date and cultivar had significant effects on the number of days from planting to stem elongation, light interception, light depreciation and LAI. The best cultivar in normal planting date were Zarfam and Opera and in relay cropping was SLM046 that these cultivars with suitable growth length, could provide appropriate conditions to intercept light.
Appropriate cultivar and date of sowing are two of the most critical aspects of crop management in semi arid condition with low rainfall like Iran. An experiment was conducted in 2008–2009 in khaton Abad Agricultural Research Station of Islamic university of khorasgan branch, Esfahan, Iran. A split plot layout within randomized completely block design with 3 replications was used. Different planting date levels were in 3 levels including (22th October , 6th November, 2th December) as the main plot and cultivars were in 6 levels including [Kavir and Shiraz (with spring growth habit) , Alvand and Mahdavi (with facultative growth habit) , Gaskoghen and C81 – 14 line (with winter growth habit)] as the subplot. Planting date has significant effect on LAI, total dry matter, NAR, light interception and light extinction coefficient, the number of seed per spike, a thousand seed weight and seed yield. CGR was not affected by planting date, and no trend was found. The influence of cultivar of LAI, total dry matter, NAR, light interception, light extinction coefficient, a thousand seed weight and seed yield was significant. Planting date and cultivar interaction just had significant effect on LAI and light interception. Gaskogen had obtained the highest seed yield and the maximum a thousand seed weight was achieved in C81-14. C81-14 also had obtained the highest LAI, light interception and light extinction coefficient. Plantation on 22th Oct had obtained the maximum LAI, light interception, light extinction coefficient, the number of seed per spike, a thousand seed weight and seed yield.
As fuel costs increase, transportation modes are looking to railways as a cheaper, more efficient and environmentally friendly alternative. Because of railway transportation's immense advantages over road and air transportation, its use is expected to increase two-fold or more over the next 10 years in the US and Canada, and likely all of North America (NA). However, NA railways are still dependent on diesel-electric locomotives, while other countries in Europe and Asia have long ago switched to more efficient electric locomotive technology. Electric locomotives have significant benefits over diesel-electrics, such as increased efficiency and traction, a lower probability of failure, reduced noise and vibrations, potential for brake regeneration, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. Despite these advantages, electric locomotives can cost significantly more than diesel-electrics and require expensive infrastructure, such as catenary lines and electric substations. In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented new regulations on diesel-electric locomotives to reduce emission toxins such as particulate matter and NOX. These new regulations create immense health benefits, but come at a cost to railway organizations for more stringent manufacturing and remanufacturing requirements. This paper explored the potential costs associated with electrifying the railway network in NA rather than focusing on improving diesel-electrics. A Monte Carlo Simulation was conducted to compare these costs with converting current railway lines to catenary, or partial catenary with on-board storage systems. Factors such as research costs, noise reduction benefits, health benefits, fuel usage, and productivity were taken into consideration to determine the most suitable alternative for the future of NA's railway organizations, environment, and society. Results suggest that implementing ultracapacitor or battery hybrid locomotive technology would create significant positive net present worth between 2012 and 2040, estimated at $411 Billion for passenger rail and $15.7 Trillion for freight rail, due mainly to less overhead catenary infrastructure and energy costs required, while still gaining the social benefits of reduced noise and improved health. They would also be the quickest electrification technology options to implement in terms of manageable construction and business disruption logistics, which were not considered in this analysis and should be research if and when business case development occurs in pursuit of electrifying railways. Moreover, over 80% of this significant NPW would accrue to railway organizations, suggesting that business case development and investment planning should proceed post haste to electrify, and to phase out diesel electric locomotives at the end of their economic life. Regardless of which route is taken, electrification would have immense benefits to both railway organizations and society. Increased productivity, reduced energy requirements, decreased noise and improved health would all significantly contribute to cost savings and an improved quality of life for residents of North America. As such, there appears to be a strong business case for research into development of hybrid electric locomotives that can operate on- and off-grid.
The paper analyzes the people perception regarding climate change and adaptation in the arid region of Pakistan in terms of temperature and precipitation fluctuation, drought and desertification, food scarcity, impact on agriculture and surface water, as well as seasonal fluctuation. Due to decrease in precipitation of 0.6inches and increase in temperature of 1.6 0C (1960-2000), the flow of water sector in Pakistan shows a more vulnerable condition from 1937-2004 that will caused a drastic change in rabi as well as kharif cultivation and need adaptation on an urgent basis. The decline in flow of the water in Indus water system will be effected the agriculture growth and production in the irrigated areas of the arid region in lower Punjab and Sind Provinces. Therefore, a questionnaire survey has been conducted in the lower Punjab to know the public opinion about the on going climate change and its impact on social, economical, demographic, and agriculture sectors. The main purpose of the survey is to device a methodology in view of public opinion for the adaptation and mitigation of climate change in the arid region of Pakistan. The major questions are about temperature and precipitation fluctuation, deforestation, overgrazing, drought, desertification, change in the earth geography, wars, change in pressure pattern, population increase, construction of water reservoirs, water resources, current government policies etc.
The economy has grown rapidly Indonesia in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of passenger cars. The number of users of passenger cars is predicted to grow dramatically in Indonesia in the future. To reduce fuel consumption in the transport sector, the department of energy and department of transportation should consider implementing minimum fuel economy standards for passenger cars. This paper attempts to predict the potential mitigation of emissions through fuel economy standards for passenger cars. The calculations were based on the growth of passenger cars ownership data. The study found that the fuel economy standards for passenger cars would mitigate a significant amount of emissions in the country.