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  • Sciforum conference paper
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In Proceedings of the 3rd World Sustain. Forum 01-30 November 2013; MDPI AG , 2013, e001
doi: 10.3390/wsf3-e001
The paper examines the impact of the Greater Cairo Master Plan and New Towns Policy on urban housing crisis through some case studies focusing especially on New Cairo City, to the east of downtown Cairo. The empirical research attempts to qualitatively examine the complex reasons for the failure of various policies and implementations in meeting housing needs of middle and low-income people. This has resulted in the emergence of nearly empty new towns, and the increasing fortification of the affluent nouveaux riche within exclusive desert condominiums and gated communities, a phenomenon which aggravated social injustice and housing inequality. These communities’ global architectural styles and marketing strategies are linked to neo-liberal economic policies and private entrepreneurial urban governance related to individualised rights of seclusion, privacy and consumption. Influenced by expatriates in the Gulf monarchies, these desert enclaves are located in Greater Cairo's western desert (6th October City: Dream Land, Gardenia and Beverly Hills) and in the eastern suburbs (New Cairo City: Katameya Heights, Golf City, Al Rehab City, Mirage City, Arabella). Surrounded by golf courses, recreational and commercial facilities, these luxurious residential districts tend to be exterritorial with their construction, maintenance and economies, being largely controlled by international property development firms, whilst locally underlining the ever-sharper social disparity between rich and poor. Whilst exclusive lifestyles and security measures are defining features of these desert resort communities, these gated enclaves do not exist in isolation from their geographical and cultural environments, as noted in New Cairo City. Since 2000 New Cairo City was established as a result of merging Greater Cairo Master Plan's eastern new settlements (1, 3 and 5 ), creating a large suburban community. Initially the area was inhabited by 1992 Cairo's earthquake victims officially relocated to public housing units in settlement (3), which were later regarded incompatible with the development of golf gated communities.To a certain extent, New Cairo City encapsulates most of the features and problems of Greater Cairo’s urban situation, in terms of a hybrid mixture of decayed public resettlement housing for the poor and up-market private gated resort communities for wealthy expatriate groups. New Cairo City, regarded as heterotopian spatial layers with diverse fragmented communities and as venue for new claims by global capital investment, ‘juxtaposes in a single real place different spaces and locations that are incompatible’ (Foucault 1997, p.356). The empirical study adopted a qualitative ethnographic analysis of the on-going contestation between resettled urban poor's right to the city, residents of gated communities, real estate and property speculators and official urban policy. A small area survey was administered within New Cairo City, with in-depth interviews recording narratives of both secondary stakeholder agencies (policy makers, urban planners, NGOs activists, real estate agents) and primary stakeholder groups (urban poor households within resettlement housing and affluent residents within gated communities). The study proposed a stakeholder approach to the sustainable development of new suburban communities in the context of real estate investment and urban planning policies,. Such approach would advocate public– private partnership and grass roots co-operation between home owners, relocated urban poor, land developers, housing experts and local authorities, in order to create inclusive and sustainable urban spaces.
  • Sciforum conference paper
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In Proceedings of the 3rd World Sustain. Forum 01-30 November 2013; MDPI AG , 2013, e002
doi: 10.3390/wsf3-e002
Phosphorus has been identified as the limiting nutrient and a primary cause of both nuisance and hazardous algal blooms in the North American Great Lakes and other water bodies. Urban areas contributed phosphorus from wastewater treatment plants and through stormwater runoff. Phosphours reduction was the key element of the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, between Canada and the United States in 1972. Although the measures that were enacted to reduce phosphorus were successful at reducing algal blooms, the problem reemerged in the last ten years. The largest hazardous algal bloom on Lake Erie occurred in 2011 and the first hazardous algal bloom on Lake Superior occurred in 2012. Nuisance algae have become a problem for infrastructure and recreation in the nearshore habitats of Lakes Erie and Ontario and to a lesser extent in tthe nearshore habitat of Lake Huron. Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) has been used to describe and analyze theflow of phosphorus through Lake Erie (2009), through agricultural production into Lake Erie (2010) and most recently, through urban areas into Lake Erie. FCM represents the flow and linkages with algal blooms and eutrophication as a network of nodes and linkages. Each node is a driver, a final receptor, or a stressor (a mid-point that both receives and contributes phosphorus to the system). FCM is a modelling strategy that has proven to be very effective for complex systems where data are not available to describe the many processes and flows, yet where an urgent need for action has been established to cope with a problem. FCM is a process where diverse groups of experts work in teams to map out the system. These maps also include weights for each linkage that describe the strength of the linkage, the confidence in the linkage, the scientific certainty, the spatial and temporal extent of the relationship and other relevant factors. The various team maps can then be aggregated into one map through different methods such as averaging the weights or genetic algorithms. A stakeholder workshop was convened in March, 2013 to create several different maps that illustrate the linkages between urbanization, phosphorus, algal blooms and eutrophication. The aggregate maps highlight the multiple drivers and the complexity of the flows through the stressors. Maps might typically contain 90 nodes and 140 linkages. The analysis of the maps provides insight as to the most important nodes in these networks, sggesting where measures to control the flow of phosphorus might have the largest impact. The aggregation and analysis of the maps was done with the Fuzzy Aggregated Linakges Within Environmental Bounds (FALWEB) software, which was developed for fuzzy cognitive maps.
  • Sciforum conference paper
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In Proceedings of the 3rd World Sustain. Forum 01-30 November 2013; MDPI AG , 2013, d001
doi: 10.3390/wsf3-d001
This paper is a sequel to a study by the authors of the electric power systems comprising the generator circuit-breakers (GCBs) at power plant generator terminals. A sustainable assessment of the current interruption requirements of a GCB addresses the main stresses on the generator circuit breaker, revealing that the GCB current interruption requirements are significantly higher than for the distribution network circuit breakers. Hence, generator circuit-breakers are subject to unique demanding conditions caused my specific stresses, namely: high asymmetrical fault currents resulting from high d.c. components of the fault current; greater electrical, thermal and mechanical stresses when interrupting longer arcing time faults; and important dielectric stress after the electric arc extinction caused by the transient recovery voltage (TRV). This paper extends other studies of the authors of the energetic and exergetic transformation chain at the interruption current transient process in an electric power system that comprises the generator circuit-breaker, as well as the transient recovery voltage (TRV) which appears after the interruption of a short-circuit fed by the synchronous generator or by the main step-up transformer. For achieving the TRV equivalent configuration the authors applied the method of operational symmetrical components (o.s.c.), and utilized the operational impedances of synchronous generator and of main transformer, depending on the fault location. Modeling the transient recovery voltage of circuits emphasizes aspects with direct implications on commutation equipment. Thus, the o.s.c. method can be applied at the poles of any breaker, for any eliminated fault type, if the network configuration and elements are known. The TRV, which appears after the interruption of a short-circuit fed by the generator, may be considered like an oscillation, where the oscillation factor and the rising rate (RR) of the TRV are established by the electrical machine parameters: resistance, inductance and capacitance. Consequently, modeling of concentrated equivalent parameters of the synchronous generator at perturbations caused by current interruption transient processes is achieved in this study through an approach based on sustainability concepts. These findings allow for simulations of the transient recovery voltage and comparisons with experimental results.
  • Sciforum conference paper
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In Proceedings of the 3rd World Sustain. Forum 01-30 November 2013; MDPI AG , 2013, d002
doi: 10.3390/wsf3-d002
Heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are used widely in many industrial processes. They collect and transport thermal energy in process heating, metal working, machine cooling with applications in the aerospace, automotive, and marine industries. Also, these fluids comprise one of the key technological components in electricity generation from concentrating solar power systems (CSPs), where they can store thermal energy as a sensible heat reservoir for later delivery to the power conversion system in absence of solar radiation. Here the authors, have developed a new one pot strategy towards biarylated ethers as novel Heat Transfer Fluids while using minimal amount of reaction solvent. The physical properties of these fluids will be discussed and compared to calculated values gained from different computational models. The use of the fluids in Solar Thermal Energy Generation will be indicated.
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