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  • Open access
  • 168 Reads
Health and social care workers’ quality of working life and coping while working during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Analysis of positive coping and work-related quality of life as resilience and protective factors impacting on wellbeing.


Lower respiratory infections are amongst the top causes of death globally. In early 2020, COVID-19 was designated as a pandemic and despite our experience of pandemics (e.g., SARS), there is limited research about how health and social care staff cope with the challenges of caring for patients while potentially putting their own health at risk. The current study therefore examined the impact of providing health and social care during COVID-19 on nurses, midwives, AHPs, social care workers and social workers.


An online survey using validated scales and open-ended questions was used to collect data from health and social care staff from across the UK in May and June 2020. Questions focused on the quality of working life, coping and mental wellbeing. The survey also captured information on how health and social care employers had supported staff and lessons learned for future pandemics and for ongoing health and social care provision.


The survey received 3,290 responses, mostly from social care workers and social workers, with lower response rates from nurses, midwives and AHPs. A multiple regression analysis showed that individuals using positive coping strategies, particularly active coping, emotional support, relaxation and exercise, had higher wellbeing scores. Lower wellbeing scores were associated with disengagement and substance use as coping strategies. Better quality of working life was associated with active coping, emotional support, work family segmentation and relaxation. Participants using disengagement and family work segmentation had lower quality of working life. No differences were observed between occupational groups.


Positive coping strategies seem to be playing a significant role in health and social care workers’ wellbeing and quality of working life and interventions may be needed to support those who are struggling to cope. These could take the form of employer-organised workshops to better equip staff with positive coping skills.

  • Open access
  • 79 Reads
Influence of Temperature and Precipitation on the Climate Suitability of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused enormous losses worldwide since its emergence in 2019. We aimed to further understand how temperature and precipitation affect distribution of the virus, to facilitate taking preventive actions against the disease in a timely manner under varying climatic conditions. In this study, we used the MaxEnt model and R software to investigate temperature and precipitation factors that affect the fitness of SARS-CoV-2. Our results showed that low temperatures (approximately 0–17.5°C) and low precipitation (approximately 30 mm) greatly influence survival of the virus. However, the output value of the response curve was close to 1 with temperatures between 31°C and 37°C and monthly average precipitation 200 mm, which indicates that a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission may also exist under these environmental conditions. SARS-CoV-2 can easily survive under conditions of low temperature and low precipitation; however, the virus also presents a high risk at 31–37°C and monthly precipitation of 200 mm. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for predicting the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

  • Open access
  • 69 Reads
Did taller people live longer? Influence of height on life span in rural Spain (19th-20th centuries)

This article analyses the relationship between male height and age at death among adults born between 1835 and 1939 in 14 villages in north-eastern Spain. A total of 1,488 conscripts who died between 1868 and 2019 have been included in the analysis. The height data have been obtained from conscriptions for military service; demographic and socioeconomic data of the deceased were obtained from parish archives and censuses. The data were linked according to nominative criteria using family reconstitution methods. The results suggest that historically there has been a positive relationship between height and life span in the long-term. For the birth cohort 1835-1869, conscripts with a height of 170 cm or more lived on average 7.6 years longer than individuals under 160 cm. This biological difference disappeared for the birth cohort 1900-1939 as result of a progressive improvement in health and nutrition conditions, benefiting especially the short conscripts.

  • Open access
  • 67 Reads

This work is an opportunity for assessing the attitude and cultural level of cement plants in occupational health and safety then initiate a sustainable development strategy and engage in a continuous improvement process. Its objective is to provide strategic decision support for the management of the risks facing our cement factories while being based on knowledge of the attitude and the cultural level of employees in health and safety at work. Such an initiative makes it possible to build a global and sustainable OHS strategy in order to avoid damage and losses while achieving their objectives, or even succeed in preventing accidents and occupational diseases. Our study is based on an in situ observation. It consists of a survey of cement factory employees to enable us to determine the elements to be improved in occupational health and safety. This study is a first of its kind in our cement plants, the results of the survey clearly show that the three cement companies are at the same cultural level in occupational health and safety , and that all the actions carried out at the level of the three companies are proven to be inadequate and disparate ,and staff are often deprived of the means to manage their health and safety without any training ,information or guidance on the risks involved in the various. we chose three cement factories in eastern Algeria.

  • Open access
  • 96 Reads
Role of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Literature Review


Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) as a means of prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic have gained increasing attention. NPIs are important to reduce infectious disease and flatten the curve of infection. However, data or literature on the effectiveness of NPIs is scarce. In this review, we aim to investigate the effectiveness of NPIs in the community based on previous literature.


A literature search was conducted on seven databases (OVID, EBSCOHOST, WOS, SCOPUS, TRIP, JSTOR, and PUBMED) using the PICO method which yielded 208 articles. A PRISMA flow diagram and extraction tables were used to analyze the final 14 eligible articles spanning nine countries.


There were nine articles on human surveillance, two on patient and contact management, two on community restrictions, and one article discussing the combination of NPIs (quarantine, closure of facilities, and transit site surveillance). With the use of NPIs, there was a significant reduction of infection episodes among the target population.


There has been an increasing demand for scientific evidence on NPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, and present policy recommendations rely heavily on expert judgement. Randomized trials are required to obtain better evidence for these interventions. However, in the absence of definitive evidence, this review will help experts create feasible and widely acceptable policies and protocols for mitigation plans.

  • Open access
  • 106 Reads
Implications and solutions for municipal solid waste management: Surge in household waste arising from increased online shopping during the COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most serious health concern currently, which emerged from China and has spread to several other countries worldwide. Besides millions of deaths, this pandemic has exposed the world to multiple problems. Of these, we seek to investigate the implications and solutions for managing municipal solid waste and the surge in household waste arising from increased online shopping in response to the current outbreak. In addition, we discuss two important research questions that will be beneficial for government and waste management officials to effectively manage municipal solid waste and household waste during the pandemic situation as well as in normal circumstances.

  • Open access
  • 130 Reads
An oveview and update on sarcopenic obesity

Sarcopenic obesity (OS) is a multifactorial condition characterized by the simultaneous presences of sarcopenia and obesity. It represents a natural phenomenon related to aging that can significantly increase the risk of osteoporosis, frailty, mobility, disability and mortality. It is estimated that approximately 45% of the elderly American population—about 18 million people—are affected by sarcopenia and that the risk of disability is 1.5–4.6 fold greater in elderly people suffering from sarcopenia than older people with unaffected muscle mass. The prevalence of OS is increasing in adults over 65 years of age; people with OS present greater health risks than people who are only sarcopenic or obese. Therefore, the study of OS and the search for effective treatment are important due to the constant increase of the elderly population.

OS is a relatively new concept in the panorama of age-related diseases. There is currently no single definition of the pathology; however, the evidence suggests a close correlation to the onset of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Although many questions remain unresolved today, it is important to note that OS can be prevented and treated by adopting a healthy lifestyle. The ideal approach is based on the targeted intervention to both slow down the course of sarcopenia and promote a decrease in adipose mass.The beneficial potential of physical activity, expressed through strength and resistance exercises, on OS is widely documented. The benefits obtained from aerobic exercises and strength exercises are shown at the level of muscle mass, muscle strength, muscular capacity and mitochondrial activity. However, the best results were obtained by coupling adequate nutritional treatment with regular physical activity. The adequate intake of proteins high in essential amino acids promotes protein synthesis and muscle health, effectively counteracting the onset of sarcopenia. In case of malnutrition a supplementation with BCAA-based supplements, leucine, vitamin D and β-HMB might help to improve and reduce the effects of sarcopenia.

The deficiency of muscle mass in obese elderly subjects will be one of the health challenges of the future to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

  • Open access
  • 108 Reads
Psychological distress and the experience of self-restrained lifestyle through COVID-19 in Japan – public insights from #Coronavirus-depression on Twitter


In Japan, lockdowns were imposed in April 2020 to combat the spread of COVID-19. Many Japanese citizens have taken their mental health concerns to Twitter, a social media platform with 45 million monthly Japanese users. This study investigates the themes of tweets related to mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown period.


We analysed the themes of tweets (n = 1734) collected in May 2020 using the #corona-depression [#コロナうつ] trending hashtag in Japan.

Results & Discussion

Tweets were classified into four main themes: i) feeling depressed, as expected (41%), ii) anxiety/fears (17%), iii) lifestyle issues (46%), and iv) positivity (15%). In theme I, over 2/3 were about the loss of sleep/not getting out of bed. Others tweeted about crying (5%) loss of interest in activities or energy (18%), and suicidality (10%), all of which corresponded with symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Among the tweets about frustration in lifestyle consequences, many (64%) expressed distress due to social isolation and the restrained lifestyle. Essential workers were fearful of being exposed to infection (13%), while others expressed distress from the loss of employment (11%). Housewives expressed the increased burden (e.g. homeschooling) with comments of being burn-out (11%). Despite the situation, some users used the platform to provide/gain support by sharing advice for staying positive (15%).


Pandemics and lockdowns have significant mental health impacts on the community. Continue monitoring is needed to determine whether these effects are temporary or long-term.

  • Open access
  • 56 Reads
Responses of Italian public hospitals to COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of supply and demand of hospitals and ICU beds.

This study aims to analyze the pressure on the Italian public hospitals from the additional demand created by COVID-19.

Starting from the analysis of regulatory interventions ordered by the Central Government in response to the emergency, this paper illustrates the trend of hospital and ICU beds from the beginning of the pandemic until November 2020.

Hospital efficiency in the various Italian regions is measured by analyzing input variables, in terms of beds and health personnel, and output variables, in terms of hospital admissions.

The results reveal a critical situation in the system for meeting this potential demand, with numerous regions operating beyond their capacity. The study presents two relevant messages. First, it is necessary to slow the spread of COVID-19 in the Italian population, allowing more time for the reorganization of the supply and relieve the pressure on the health system.

Another suggestion regards the regionalized organization of health services: the design may be adequate in situations of routine demand but suffers important challenges during pandemics.

  • Open access
  • 48 Reads

The primary objectives of the project were to encourage health promotion through education, outreach and community based training and to support infrastructure development for the sustainability of lead prevention efforts. Methods: The study was conducted in Forrest County, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. CLAP staff distributed material and spoke at a wide variety of venues making over 50 public appearances at health fairs, schools, neighborhood meetings, community events and the local park. The number of participants were as follows: health fairs (n = 467), community events (n = 469), and Kindergarten classes (n = 241). Hands-on training was offered at homebuilding retail stores (n = 25). EPA/HUD’s online visual training was given to realtors (n = 220), and inspectors, contractors, and Do-It-Yourself (DIY) workers (n = 75). Training workshops were attended by home-buyers and rental home owners at the Neighborhood Association Meetings (n = 91). Impact of training was evaluated by pre- and posttests. Results: Hands-on Training: Nearly 90% of the participants (n = 25) reported the hands-on training was useful. EPA/HUD Online Training: At posttest, 59.4%, 67.9%, 65.1% of the participants (n = 220) identified soil, car batteries and paint as sources of lead in the environment, respectively. Nearly 70% identified lead as a poison in the environment while 77.5% and 47.2% of those surveyed demonstrated two different behaviors which will help prevent lead poisoning. A total of 62.3%, 48.1% and 58.5%, at posttest, identified three complications (mental, physical and psychological) respectively. The mean posttest score was significantly higher than the pretest scores (7.47 ± 2.07 vs. 6.60 ± 1.68, respectively. All the participants at a 2-month follow-up reported that that they used information obtained during the training on EPA-HUD curriculum on lead. The outcome measurements of home-buyer workshops were not significantly different from those of the online training. Conclusion: This training activities were successful in improving knowledge of the community people on lead poisoning prevention. Community programs are essential to ensure primary prevention of lead poisoning.