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1 , 2 , 1 , * 1 , 3
1  Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas Sinchi Avenida Vásquez Cobo entre 14 y 15 Leticia, Amazonas. Colombia
2  2Universidad Central de Venezuela Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética
3  3Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT). Dpto Ingeniería de Alimentos y del Equipamiento Agrícola. Po Alfonso XIII, 48. ETSIA. E-30203 Cartagena (Murcia). España

Abstract: Extraction is one of the crucial steps for research and development of plant secondary metabolites, above all in emergent and promissory plants. Now, many technics has been proved but natural products demands more eco commitment from the value productive chain. Microwave assisted extraction is one of the important techniques for extracting valuable compounds from vegetal materials, due to the versatility of microwave. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE), has many applications in organic synthesis, polymerization and depolymerization and secondary metabolites extraction. Plant secondary metabolites are invaluable resources, useful in food additives, fragrances, pigment or directly in medicine. Milpesillos (Oenocarpus mapora), Asai (Eutherpe precatoria) or seje (Oenocarpus bataua), American palms from the Colombian Amazonia region exhibit a high polyunsaturated, fatty acid content and attractive profile as a natural ingredients. Preliminary assays have demonstrated that MAE conditions used need optimization be improved in order to increase yield rate extraction compared with other extraction methods as solid liquid extraction (SLE) (-59%) or mechanical extraction with expeller press (EPE) (-50%). MAE were used to obtain oil ingredients from this palms fruits with more unsaturated fatty acids combined with less use of solvents in less time, compared with SLE extraction . MAE has been also used in pigments extraction as Carayuru (Arrabidaea chica (Bonpl.) B. Verl.) or Achiote (Bixa orellana) plants and pigment have shown higher stability than those obtained by chemical methods. Efficiency was also higher in MAE, compared with other methods due to the short period required to obtain final products (+85%).
Keywords: palms, pigments, oils, emergent species