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Induction of Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Treated with Phytopathogen Filtrates
* 1 , 2
1  Grupo de Fitopatología y Control Biológico, Instituto Hispanoluso de Investigaciones Agrarias (CIALE), Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
2  Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Applied Biology (IMAB), Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Academic Editor: Dimitris Bouranis


Agricultural crops are increasingly affected by phytopathogenic diseases, rising production losses. Nevertheless, disease control using phytopathogenic microorganisms or their derivatives are still unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of phytopathogen filtrates on Arabidopsis thaliana defense response and its development. The filtrates were obtained through liquid cultures, using Luria-Bertani broth to the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Potato Dextrose broth to the fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Ralstonia solani, and to the oomycete Pythium irregulare. The gene expression analysis of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways, through the genes ICS1 and PR1, and LOX1 and VSP2, respectively, showed that plants were able to activate a systemic defense response, giving significant expression levels in the leaves, despite the contact with the filtrates occurred at the roots. Also, we observed that with the exception of S. sclerotiorum, the other filtrates had a positive effect on plants growth, the aerial tissue being favored by R. solani and the root by P. irregulare. Moreover, there was no significant variation in the number of fruits. Additionally, we saw that pretreatment with fungal filtrates, especially of R. solani, favored the defense response of the plants against infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, which could be due to the elicitor molecules they have in common. These findings show that the use of phytopathogen filtrates in agriculture has the potential to reduce the application of pesticides through the use of the plant's own defense system.

Keywords: Arabidopsis, filtrate, phytopathogen, R. solani, defense response, development