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Detection of Celiac Active Polypeptides in Wheat, Oat and Buckwheat by Immunochemical Methods

Cereals and pseudocereals are one of the most important crops of agricultural production. Number of people suffering from food allergies and intolerances has been increasing in recent years and cereal proteins are the most common food allergens. Pseudocereals represent perspective alternative in nutrition with a positive effect on the human body, while do not cause celiac disease. The aim of the study was to analyze the proteome of the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), common oat (Avena sativa) and common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) genotypes by immunochemical methods and to detect the presence of potentially allergenic proteins. The results of ELISA confirmed a high gluten content in wheat (43 278.51, which does not fulfil the set limit for gluten-free food. Two analyzed oat varieties Vendelin (44.71 and Valentin (57.37 can be characterized as crops with a low gluten content. The oat variety Zvolen (10.57 and all three analyzed buckwheat varieties (average 2.03 fulfil the criteria for labeling as gluten-free food. The results confirm the oat varietal dependence on the content of allergenic proteins. Western blot analysis revealed the strongest reaction of polyclonal antibody with wheat proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 25 kDa to 50 kDa. In oat, the strongest signal was detected in proteins with a molecular weight of 20 kDa and also 40 kDa-55 kDa. No signal was detected in buckwheat, which was confirmed by ELISA results. Based on the above, buckwheat can be recommended as a safe crop for the preparation of gluten-free foods.

Keywords: celiac disease, wheat, oat, backwheat, Elisa, Western blot