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Title of the article: Effect of short-term Vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure, arterial health, and stress hormones in healthy volunteers
* 1, 2 , 3
2  Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, Scotland, UK
3  Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan. Post code: 19328.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Durazzo


Background: Despite suggested epidemiological findings and plausible mechanisms, data linking vitamin D supplementation with improvement in cardiovascular risk is limited. Also, little is known about the effect of vitamin D on CVD health of young healthy people. Objectives: To investigate effect of short-term supplementation with vitamin D3, considered to possess wide range of functions, on blood pressure (BP), Arterial compliance, body mass index (BMI) and salivary stress hormones levels in young healthy adults. Methods: Healthy, normotensive participants (n=20) were asked to consume 20µg/day of vitamin D3 for two weeks, and other volunteers received a placebo. BP, PWV, BMI and salivary cortisol level were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks’ time. Vitamin D and total energy intakes were also evaluated. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean systolic BP by 5.3 ±6.46 mmHg (p=0.035), diastolic BP by 3.4±4.46 mmHg (p=0.002) and pulse wave velocity by 0.475±0.31m/s (p=0.007) with a negative correlation with vitamin D intake (r=−0.43). There was no significant effect on salivary cortisol (p=0.554), but salivary and urine cortisol/cortisone ratio was reduced from 0.952±0.54 to 0.784±0.68, p=0.028, and 1.71±0.75 to 1.22±0.53, p=0.015 respectively. Conclusions: Vitamin D3 intake decreases both diastolic and systolic BP and improves arterial compliance with reduction of urine and salivary cortisol/cortisone ratios indicating an inhibition of 11βHSD type 1 enzyme activity. The results suggest that vitamin D3 could have the potential to reduce the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in young healthy adults and therefore support body functions in the event of Covid-19 infection. Further research is warranted to test the reproducibility of data.

Keywords: Vitamin D; Blood pressure; Arterial compliance; Stress; Cortisol; 11βHSD activity