Please login first
Body composition and dietary intake changes in postmenopausal spanish women before and after the the Covid-19 lockdown.
1 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , * 2 , 2 , 2 , 2
1  Master's degree in research in socio-health sciences. Nursing and Occupational Therapy College. University of Extremadura, Caceres, Spain
2  Metabolic Bone Diseases Research Group. University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
Academic Editor: David Nieman


The current study examined changes in body composition and dietary intake of healthy spanish postmenopausal before and after the COVID-19-related lockdown. Sixty-six women participated in the study (58.7 ± 5.4 years). Participants had a full bioelectrical impedance study (BIA) before (between July-October 2019) and after (August-October 2020) the lockout, which occurred as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic in Spain. Dietary intake was determined before and after using a dietary questionnaire. Study subjects completed a 131-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was previously validated and involves a 24-hour recall conducted over seven days. Using the FFQ, we assessed the dietary intake of protein, fat, carbohydrates and total energy from the Spanish Food Composition database. All participants also underwent anthropometric determinations before and after. No statistically significant differences were observed in the weight of the participants 66.8 ± 12 vs 67.2 ± 13.1 (p=0.243). Neither were significant changes visible in the percentage of fat mass 37.5 ± 6.8 vs 37.6 ± 6.9 (p= 0.567), lean mass in kg 25.8 ± 9.1 vs 26.1 ± 9.7 (p= 0.365) or in the lean mass of the participants in kg 41.0 ± 3.7 vs 41.2 ± 4.3. The assessment of dietary intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates before and after the confinement period also showed no significant changes: protein 96.4 ± 38.5 vs 99.9 ± 37.7 g/day (p=0.657); fat 87.3 ± 35.7 vs 88.6 ± 38.2 g/day (p=0.505) and carbohydrates 340.7 ± 367.1 g/day vs 252.8 ± 68.4 g/day (p=0.590). The method used to measure food intake determines the quality of the estimate of nutrient intake of populations; a good estimate includes the intake of energy and total fat and necessarily involves a detailed measurement of the intake of all foods, since several foods account for the dietary intake of these nutrients. A 7-day record that adequately indicates portion sizes, as well as the inclusion of sufficient recording days over a period long enough, allows for accurate and detailed recording of foods and ultimately to be able to estimate individual daily mean intakes of most food types without significant bias. However, we recognize that the use of a FFQ may be unreliable and inadequate for assessing absolute and relative nutrient intakes.

In conclusion, it does not appear that there have been changes in the body composition of the postmenopausal women studied or in their dietary habits, related to the possible complications derived from the lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic.