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Antimicrobial Activities of Compounds Produced by Newly Isolated Streptomyces Strains from Mountain Caves
* 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 1 , 4 , 1 , 1 , 2
1  University of Gdansk
2  Institute of Biochemistry and Biophyscics, Polish Academy of Sciences
3  University of Warsaw
4  Jagiellonian University
Academic Editor: Manuel Simões


Resistance of bacteria and fungi to antibiotics and other drugs is recognized as one of the major problems in current medicine. Therefore, a search for new biologically active compounds able to either kill pathogenic cells or inhibit their growth is mandatory. Hard-to-reach habitats appear to be unexplored sources of microorganisms producing previously unknown antibiotics and other molecules revealing potentially therapeutic properties. Caves belong to such habitats, and Actinobacteria are a predominant group of microorganisms occurring there. This group of bacteria are known for production of many antibiotics and other bioactive compounds. Here, a series of newly isolated strains of Actinobacteria that were found in caves from the Tatra Mountains (Poland) will be presented. Among all the examined bacteria, two newly isolated Streptomyces sp. strains were further characterized to demonstrate their ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria (strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Enterococcus sp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (different species and strains from the genus Candida). Chemical analyses of these extracts indicated the presence of isomers of dichloranthrabenzoxocinone and 4,10- or 10,12-dichloro-3-O-methylanthrabenzoxocinone, which are putative antimicrobial compounds. Moreover, various previously unknown (unclassified) molecules were also detected using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, suggesting that tested Streptomyces strains may synthesize a battery of bioactive compounds with antibacterial and antifungal activities. These results indicate that further studies on the newly isolated Actinobacteria might be a promising approach to develop novel antimicrobial drugs.

Keywords: Antibacterial compounds, antifungal compounds, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, cave bacteria