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Indoor Air Quality (PM2.5 and PM10) and Toxicity Potential at a Commercial Environment in Akure, Nigeria
* 1 , 2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6
1  Science and Education Development Institute, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
2  Department of Chemistry, University of Education, Science, and Technology, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria
3  Department of Science Education, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere - Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
4  Department Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
5  Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 50, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria
6  Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Academic Editor: Jon Ø. Odland


According to studies, indoor air quality is a major concern because of the health risks it poses. In Nigeria, little is done to improve indoor air quality and the toxicity potentials (TP) of PM2.5 and PM10. We assessed the levels of PM2.5, PM10, the PM2.5/PM10 ratio, and the toxicity potential of a commercial area in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, in this study. For the three-month assessment of the study area (March to May 2022), a low-cost sensor (Caneree A1) was used. The results depict the following: 73.23±53.94 µg/m3 (PM2.5), 68.58±50.64 µg/m3 (PM10), 0.93±0.02 (PM2.5/PM10 ratio), and toxicity potentials (PM2.5 - 2.74±0.04 and PM10 - 1.47±0.02). Both PM values exceed the WHO standard limits. The PM values differ significantly. The average ratio value indicates that anthropogenic activities in the area contribute significantly to the high PM2.5 levels. It should be noted that TP greater than 1 indicates a potential health risk. The TP values obtained in this study are greater than one, indicating that the environment may be harmful to the vulnerable. Based on these findings, efforts should be directed toward continuous monitoring of this study area and Akure as a whole.

Keywords: Indoor; health risks; low-cost sensor; WHO standard; Nigeria