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Signature garlic phytochemical as a potential anti-candidal candidate targeting virulence factors in Candida albicans
* 1, 2 , 2 , * 1
1  Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India
2  Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India
Academic Editor: Shaker Mousa


Anti-microbial resistance to presently available antifungal medications, as well as an increase in their toxicity, is becoming a severe concern throughout the world. It is necessary to investigate innovative, more effective medications especially derived from medicinally active plants with lesser chances of side effects. Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) is an organosulfur derived from garlic oil which is responsible for typical garlic odour is explored for its therapeutic potential against Candida albicans. The effect of AMS on major virulence factors has been studied in Candida albicans reference strains, with MIC and MFC values reported to be 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml, respectively. Fungal growth in C. albicans was entirely inhibited at their respective MIC values, as demonstrated by growth curve and time kill kinetics experiments. In C. albicans, AMS treatment also reduces attachment to buccal cell epithelial tissues as measured microscopically. After treatment with AMS, C. albicans' release of extracellular proteinases, phospholipases, and biofilm formation were significantly inhibited. AMS exhibited little toxicity to human red blood cells (RBCs), indicating that it might be a feasible alternative to commonly used antifungal medications. More research is needed to determine its mechanism of action and precise target areas. The current work should be supported by molecular in silico and in vivo research.

Keywords: Candida albicans; antifungal; phytochemical, virulence, garlic, allyl methyl sulfide