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Optimization procedures for development of SERS-based lateral flow assay for high sensitive detection of Troponin I
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1  Speclipse
Academic Editor: Eden Morales-Narváez (registering DOI)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is identified as the leading cause of death because of heart disease, stroke and other chronic diseases. The early and rapid detection of Troponin I, a cardiovascular disease biomarker, has an imperative role to prevent high risk of death. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for detecting Troponin I quickly and effectively would provide yes/no answers with visual assessment, but not adequate to monitor the early stage of CVD. The Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technique, offering highly sensitive and quantitative analysis, is integrated with LFA in order to measure Troponin I in a highly specific manner. Although the application of LFA is a modern technique, the development of SERS-based LFA is not straightforward. This research discusses three optimization procedures to develop SERS-based LFA for high sensitivity detection of Troponin I: (a) optimizing gold nanoparticle sizes (30, 50, 80, 100 nm) for SERS quantitative assay on Troponin I LFA; (b) investigating LFA components and fluid flow time to recognize Troponin I with SERS performance; and (c) evaluating different laser wavelengths and laser power for SERS-based LFA for the analysis of Troponin I. In a SERS-based LFA, these parameters are fundamental for augmenting sensitivity and detection limit. The SERS-based LFA became more sensitive than visual detection with naked eyes for quantitative quantification of Troponin I after optimization. In addition, the discussed procedures may offer advantages for the development of SERS-based LFA to detect various biomarkers in a highly sensitive manner.

Keywords: Lateral flow assay; Biosensors; Cardiovascular disease (CVD); surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy; POC devices