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Unlocking the Secrets of Special Micronized Wholemeal Flours: A Comprehensive Characterization Study
* 1 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 3 , 3
1  Wrocław University of Economics and Business
2  University of Chemistry and Technology Prague
3  Wroclaw University of Economics and Business
Academic Editor: Manuel Viuda-Martos


This study aimed to characterize special micronized wholemeal flours with a fine granulation size of less than 160 µm, which were provided by Perner Svijany Mill, Ltd (Czech Republic). The flours under investigation included wheat, rye, spelt, barley, buckwheat, sorghum, and teff. Various parameters were investigated to characterize the flours, including moisture, energy value, fat, carbohydrates, sugars, total protein, ash, and total dietary fiber (TDF). The falling number of the flours was assessed using the Hagberg-Perten method. Furthermore, the pasting properties of tested flours were analyzed using an amylograph, and a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The water absorption of the wholemeal flours was examined using a farinograph. Additionally, the technological quality of the tested material was assessed based on the water and sodium carbonate Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) profile.

Among the analyzed micronized flours, special wheat flour was characterized by the highest nutritional value (the highest protein -14.7%, ash - 2.36% and TDF content - 18.7%), the highest water absorption (87.4%) and final gelatinization temperature (92.3oC) and the lowest energy value (334.8 kcal/100g), carbohydrate content (54.0%), water SRC (68.9%) and sodium carbonate SRC (82.9%). Wholemeal rye flour was characterized by the lowest nutrient content (protein - 11.0%, fat - 1.9% and ash- 1.54%) and the highest amylolytic activity, and water and sodium carbonate SRC (respectively 128.8% and 121.6%). The lowest water absorption were found in special teff flour (58.0%). The highest energy value (356.9 kcal/100g) which results from the highest carbohydrate content (68.0%), the lowest sugar (1.9%) and TDF content (4.4%), the lowest amylolytic activity, pasting temperature (74.3oC) were found in special buckwheat flour. Special spelt flour was characterized by the lowest maximum viscosity (353 AU).

These findings provide valuable insights into the nutritional composition, rheological properties, and technological characteristics of micronized wholemeal flours, aiding in their potential applications in the food industry and dietary planning.

Keywords: wholemeal flours; micronized flours; quality; nutritional composition; rheological properties