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Sensory profile of gluten-free breads based on alternative commercial flours
1, 2 , 3 , 1, 2 , * 2, 4 , 1, 2
1  Institute of Food Science and Technology of Entre Ríos (ICTAER-UNER-CONICET), Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos, Argentina.
2  National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET)
3  Faculty of Bromatology, National University of Entre Ríos (UNER), Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos, Argentina
4  Institute of Food Technology and Chemical Processes (ITAPROQ-UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Academic Editor: Koushik Adhikari


Gluten-free breads (GFB) are based mainly on refined flours, being characterised by a poor nutritional profile. The use of alternative flours, rich in protein and dietary fibre in the design of GFB could improve either technological or nutritional properties. The objective of the study was to evaluate the global differences/similarities, and the overall acceptability of GFB formulated with alternative flours in regular consumers and with gluten-related disorders. A projective mapping and hedonic test were used to describe the sensory profile and to assess the liking of products in untrained panellists (N=34). GFB were formulated using a traditional recipe, where 20% of refined flours were replaced by: brown rice, rice bran, lupin, millet, carob, quinoa, sorghum, teff or buckwheat. The hydration level and fermentation time were previously optimised to maximise the GFB specific volume. The relationship between products and descriptors was analysed by a multiple factor analysis (MFA) using XLSTAT software. The results showed four different groups of GFB based on (1) carob which was described as acid, (2) millet as white crumb, (3) rice bran, sorghum, lupin and buckwheat as crumbly and smelly, and (4) teff, quinoa and brown rice as sweet, springy and crispy. GFB received a punctuation of 5.9-7.3 in a 9-point scale, being the GFB based on carob flour the less accepted (2.9±2.5). These flours could contribute to enhancing the nutritional profile and could be a useful tool for the food industry. GFB formulations should be optimised for improving the consumer acceptability according to the flour selected.

Keywords: Gluten-free bread; alternative flours; sensory profile; consumers.