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On the path to innovative nanotechnological formulations for skin diseases associated with barrier impairment
* 1, 2 , 3, 4, 5 , 3 , 6 , 7 , 7 , 1 , * 1, 8 , * 1
1  CBIOS - Universidade Lusófona’s Research Center for Biosciences & Health Technologies, Lisboa, Portugal
2  Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Alcalá, Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona, Madrid, Spain
3  Ingredient Odyssey SA – EntoGreen, Rua Cidade de Santarém 140, 2005-079 Santaréem, Portugal
4  CiiEM – Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Campus Universitário, 2829-511 Caparica, Portugal
5  Myrtus Unipessoal Lda, Monte Claro, Nisa, Portugal
6  Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
7  Centro de Investigação da Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
8  LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
Academic Editor: Alfredo Berzal-Herranz (registering DOI)

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae biomass can be viewed as an innovative source of compounds with high aggregate value and marketing potential due to the sustainable organic matter bioconversion process used as a substrate for its development. The larvae lipid fraction seems particularly promising as a source of added-value lipids for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, mainly due to its blend of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Dysfunctions in the cutaneous barrier are behind many pathologies, resulting in clinical manifestations such as inflammatory processes. Some of these disorders are related to alterations or depletion of the SC lipidic matrix. The lipid fraction of BSF larvae biomass can be foreseen to provide barrier recovery and emollient ingredients for topical formulations due to good biocompatibility that is expected for this raw material, since FA are critical in skin barrier function. Different methods of extraction were then tested and, in general, the lauric acid (C12:0) was prevalent in all extractions, followed by the palmitic (C16:0), linoleic (C18:2), and oleic (C18:1n-9) acids. Nanotechnology has provided promising and advanced tools for the delivery of drugs and actives for topical application in the context of skin diseases with barrier impairment. Lipid-based, polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles have been explored to load glucocorticoids for topical application in the management of these skin conditions. Moreover, lipid-based and polymeric nanosystems have been explored to provide ceramides by topical application, reinforcing the skin barrier. In this context, multifunctional nano-based formulations joining FA, ceramides and glucocorticoids may bode well for the future of managing skin diseases with barrier impairment.

Keywords: Lipid extract, Skin barrier impairment; Nanotechnology