“Pineapple” is one of the most popular varieties of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris L.). However, this variety was first obtained in Yerevan (Armenia), where it is called Shalakh or Yerevanian. It has been cultivated throughout Armenia for many centuries. Despite its great popularity the chemical composition, pharmacological properties and use of raw materials from its historical territory and the usual conditions of germination have not been studied before. Apricot seeds are a source for obtaining the oil, which is used as a cosmetic and medicinal product. These effects are mainly caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids. Probably, fruits should also be characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids.
The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acid profile and the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the fruits of the apricot variety Shalakh, collected and harvested in 2020 in the Armavir region in Armenia. The fatty acid composition of the raw material was determined by gas-liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector on a Shimadzu GC-2014B chromatograph.
As a result of the study, 6 saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachinic, behenic) and 5 unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, linoleic, α-linolenic) were found in apricot fruit. The highest content of these compounds is oleic acid - 40.18% and linoleic acid - 35.10%.
The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated was 4.6:1. We can suggest that the raw materials of the Shalakh apricot variety may have reparative, antioxidant and rejuvenating properties.