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25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Levels Linked to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2228570, rs2282679, rs10741657) in Sports Performance in Elite Athletes
* 1, 2 , 3 , 4, 5 , 6, 7 , 8, 9
1  Department of Cellular Biology, Genetics, Histology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Valladolid
2  Neurobiology Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
3  Department of Physics and Chemistry, "Nuestra Señora del Pilar-Escolapios" High School, 42005 Soria, Spain
4  Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), Physiotherapy Department, University of Leon
5  Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Nursery, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)
6  Alicante Institute for Health and Biomedical Research (ISABIAL), 03010 Alicante, Spain
7  CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
8  Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Navarra; Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Spain
9  IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
Academic Editor: Maria-Luz Fernandez


Vitamin D can favor the state of iron metabolism, and testosterone and cortisol as an indicator of the athlete's muscle recovery and therefore improve sports performance. Deficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (<30 ng/mL) may compromise health, lead to musculoskeletal disorders, and decrease athletic performance. We evaluated the impact and presence of a possible linkage between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and VDR (rs2228570), serum 25-OH/D concentrations and the link with the degree sports performance in 19 elite cyclists’ men not supplemented with vitamin D Levels of 25-OH vitamin D were quantified with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and 3 SNPs were genotyped with KASPar assays. A performance level was established based on the sum of three physical performance tests such as test time, average power, and blood lactate level. Significant differences in 25-OH/D concentration were determined between the bi-allelic combinations of rs228679 and rs228570. We detected statistically significant weak positive correlations between the AA (rs10741657 and rs228570) and TT (rs228679) and alleles and 25-OH/D and the probability of having higher 25-OH/D concentrations was 2- to 3-fold higher. However, the GG alleles of the 3 SNPs showed that the probability of having optimal 25-0H/D concentrations decreases by 32% for rs10741657, 38% for rs228679, and 74% for rs228570, showing a strong negative correlation between the level of sports performance and 25-OH/D levels. Allelic variations in CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and VDR (rs10741657) affect vitamin D levels and decisively influence sports performance in elite athletes. These results could highlight that the evaluation of genetic factors is key to designing a vitamin D supplementation strategy to improve sports performance.

Keywords: sports performance; 25-OH vitamin D; SNPs; genetics; elite athletes.