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Temporal change dynamics of the hydrometeorological conditions of upper Subarnarekha River Basin (SRB) using geospatial techniques
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1  Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Academic Editor: Riccardo Buccolieri (registering DOI)

Understanding the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes driven by urbanization, socioeconomic growth, deforestation, agricultural practices, mining activities, etc. is vital for assessing the dynamics of hydrometeorological parameters of a river basin. Thus, a decadal evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in LULC for the years 2001, 2010 and 2020 was carried out with an objective to understand the impact on its hydrometeorological conditions of the upper Subarnarekha River Basin (SRB). Satellite based multi-temporal data such as Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) temperature data (2001-2020) was used to analyse the climatic implications. Additionally, conventional groundwater level data for the same period were collected from the India-Water Resource Information System (WRIS). The study examined the impact of changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) and climatic conditions on the fluctuations of groundwater levels, particularly in terms of pre and post-monsoon depths within the Upper Subarnarekha River basin, India. Theil Sen’s Median trend in conjunction with Mann-Kendall (MK) test was also applied in this study. Results indicate that the southern region of the basin exhibits higher values for both precipitation and temperature. A considerable increase in built-up area with concurrent fluctuations in the groundwater level was observed in the upper SRB region. Our study explored the relationship between climatic parameters and groundwater levels in select urbanized areas of the region. The investigation revealed a strong link between rainfall and groundwater level. Mann-Kendall test indicated a non-significant upward trend in rainfall at a rate of 9.83 mm/year, while temperature showed an incessantly significant increasing trend. Inferences on variable temporal behaviour of the basin over the reference period of study further points to the need of monitoring the changes in hydrometeorological health of the basin. It can be critical to ensuring long-term water resources sustainability through appropriate planning and management in the rapidly changing geo-environment of river basins like SRB.

Keywords: Subarnarekha River Basin; LULC; Theil Sen’s Median trend; Mann-Kendall (MK) test; CHIRPS; FLDAS; Groundwater level
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