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Recent developments in the removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater
* 1 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 3 , 2
1  Universidade do Porto - Faculdade de Farmácia
2  Universidade de Vigo, Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Instituto de Agroecoloxía e Alimentación (IAA) – CITEXVI, 36310 Vigo, España.
3  LAQV@REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.
Academic Editor: Cristina Soares


Heavy metal contamination in water sources is a pressing global issue, necessitating continuous advancements in removal technologies [1]. This review provides an overview of recent developments in removing heavy metals from water and wastewater, addressing the urgent need for effective and sustainable solutions to mitigate environmental pollution and safeguard public health.

We will cover various removal techniques, including adsorption [2], ion exchange [3], membrane filtration [4], electrochemical methods [5], and biological treatment [6]. Special emphasis is placed on recent advancements such as developing novel adsorbents with enhanced efficiency and selectivity, integrating nanotechnology for improved performance [7], and applying advanced oxidation processes for the degradation of metal complexes. Furthermore, innovative approaches such as hybrid systems and integrated treatment schemes are discussed for their potential to achieve comprehensive heavy metal removal.

In addition to technological advancements, this communication examines challenges and opportunities to implement heavy metal removal technologies, including scalability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, regulatory frameworks and policy considerations about heavy metal discharge limits and water quality standards are addressed, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers, policymakers, and industry stakeholders.

Overall, this communication provides valuable insights into recent developments in heavy metal removal technologies, offering a comprehensive perspective on the state-of-the-art approaches and future directions for addressing the challenges posed by heavy metal contamination in water and wastewater.

Keywords: wastewater; water; heavy metal; mercury; lead