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Synthesis and characterization of novel 4H-pyran-4-ylidene indole-based heterocyclic systems for several optical applications
1 , 2 , 1 , * 2
1  Centre of Physics University of Minho, Campus of Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga
2  Centre of Chemistry, University of Minho, Campus of Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal


The development of organic materials displaying high two-photon absorption (TPA) has attracted much attention in recent years due to a variety of potential applications in photonics and optoelectronics, such as three-dimensional optical data storage, fluorescence imaging, two-photon microscopy, optical limiting, microfabrication, photodynamic therapy, upconverted lasing, etc. The most frequently employed structural motifs for TPA materials are donor–pi bridge–acceptor (D–pi–A) dipoles, donor–pi bridge–donor (D–pi–D) and acceptor–pi bridge-acceptor (A–pi–A) quadrupoles, octupoles, etc. In this work we present the synthesis and photophysical characterization of quadrupolar heterocyclic systems with potential applications in materials and biological sciences as TPA chromophores. Indole is a versatile building block for the synthesis of heterocyclic systems for several optoelectronic applications (chemosensors, nonlinear optical, OLEDs) due to its photophysical properties and donor electron ability and 4H-pyran-4-ylidene fragment is frequently used for the synthesis of red light-emitting materials. On the other hand, 2-(2,6-dimethyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)malononitrile (1) and 1,3-diethyl-dihydro-5-(2,6-dimethyl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-2-thiobarbituric (2) units are usually used as strong acceptor moieties for the preparation of π-conjugated systems of the push-pull type. These building blocks were prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of the corresponding ketone precursor with malononitrile or 1,3-diethyl-dihydro-2-thiobarbituric acid. The new quadrupolar 4H-pyran-4-ylidene fluorophores (3) derived from indole were prepared through condensation of 5-methyl-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde with the acceptor precursors 1 and 2, in the presence of a catalytical amount of piperidine. The new compounds were characterized by the usual spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis., FT-IR and multinuclear NMR - 1H, 13C).

Keywords: Keywords: Indole, 4H-Pyran-4-ylidene; π-conjugated systems, Two-Photon Absorbing (TPA) chromophores.