This paper presents a study on boiling assemblages in the Kupel occurrence, as boiling was evidenced by the presence of vein adularia and platy calcite. Fluid inclusion evidence is not available since the present fluid inclusions are very small in size for investigation under optical microscope. Boiling assemblages occur in two types of auriferous mineralization hosted by supradetachment, grey fine-grained arkosic sandstones and presented by (i) veinlets of quartz-adularia and (ii) veinlets of platy calcite. In quartz-adularia veinlets micron-sized electrum aggregates form globular shapes, which reach 800 µm across and are arranged along the veinlet length. In cross-sections electrum aggregates display abundant silicate-filled pores of a few microns in size. Globular geometry of the electrum aggregates and their arrangement along the veinlet length suggest collectively that these globules were flowing particles - flocs but not colloidal particles since the latter are much smaller. In these veinlets electrum is intergrown with micron-sized chalcopyrite, galena, hessite and greenockite. The auriferous calcite veinlets are formed later than the auriferous quartz-adularia ones, since the first clearly has intersected or brecciated the latter. Electrum in the calcite veinlets forms accumulations only in portions of sharp thickness expansions after throttle portions, which are barren. This suggests that electrum has been transported by a flowing fluid, in a particulate form and deposited due to pressure drop during hydrofracturing, as the electrum particles have been arrested in low velocity (expanded) portions of ore conduits. The auriferous assemblages in the Kupel occurrence indicate high effectiveness of boiling for deposition of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Cd and Te through collective loss of H2, CO2, H2S and H2Te what is in complete accord with recent studies on modern terrestrial geothermal fields. Methods used comprise observations under binocular, optical and scanning electron microscope, and electron microprobe analysis.
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Boiling assemblages in the Kupel occurrence, Krumovgrad goldfield, SE Bulgaria
Published: 18 July 2018 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Mineral Science session Mineral Deposits
Keywords: boiling; electrum; flowing flocs; adularia; hessite; greenockite; adularia-sericite deposits; low-sulfidation