The most disadvantage of the fried falafel balls are the highest level of acrylamide formed during Maillard reaction. Falafel balls are one of the largest deep fat frying fast food in the Middle East made basically of chickpeas. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding transglutaminase (TG, E.C. 126.96.36.199) to the falafel dough followed or not by dipping into pectin (PEC 1%) coating solution. Acrylamide, oil and water content of the fried falafel balls treated or not by TG (5 or 20U/g of chickpea proteins) and coated or not with PEC-containing film forming solutions were evaluated. In addition, the texture profile analyses were carried out. We observed, by TOF LC/MS, that the acrylamide content was reduced, compared to control sample, by 10.8% and 34.4% in the samples set up by adding 5 and 20 U TG/g respectively. In PEC-coated samples, acrylamide reduction was about by 59%, 65.3% and 84.5%, in falafel balls prepared either without of TG or containing 5U or 20 U of the enzyme, respectively, suggesting that TG-mediated crosslinks increase the water content inside the falafel balls, thus, reducing the rate of Maillard reaction. However, TG treatment does not affect oil content, while the PEC coating reduces the oil uptake about 23.5%. Finally, no difference was observed between the control sample and the one dipped in PEC regarding their texture properties hardness, chewiness and gumminess, while these properties were influenced in samples set up in the presence of the enzyme.
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Improving the health quality of fried falafel (Middle Eastern food) by using transglutaminase and/or pectin coating
Published: 03 March 2019 by MDPI in 1st Coatings and Interfaces Web Conference session Biomaterial Surfaces & Interfaces
Keywords: edible coating, transglutaminase, pectin, acrylamide