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Design of Sustainable Sanitation Systems for IDPA Corail Camp in Haiti
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Published: 02 November 2011 by MDPI in The 1st World Sustainability Forum session Environmental Sustainability
Abstract: Haiti is unfortunately the unluckiest tropical island in the world because of not only its political and economical issues but also due to natural disasters happening there. Especially after the earthquake in 2010, the life became more difficult for habitants in Haiti, mainly clean water scarcity and sanitation problems. The aim of this project is to review a range of available emerging sustainable sanitation systems, design and simulate that could provide solutions for Haiti, considering environmental, social and economical aspects after this earthquake. The aim is also to design and simulate the best systems. Finally the project aims to analyze how the best systems could be implemented in IDP Camps and specifically in the Corail Camp in Haiti. The project encompasses: (i) A literature review of waste water treatment in emergency situations, using Haiti as a case study. (ii) An investigation into alternative ways to treat waste water in an area after a disaster. (iii) An analysis based on the needs identified from the Haiti. (iv) The selection of the two best systems and a design and simulation (using BioWin-3.1) for a standard camp block of 1250 people. (v) An analysis of the implication of implementing the two systems in Corail Camp, including economical and climate considerations. The investigation is narrowed down through selection criterion, to the two most feasible systems, the DEWATS (Decentralized Water Treatment system) and composting toilet. The feasibility of these two systems for the camps is proven through simulation and design. Through an economical analysis the two designs were developed for the Corail Camp. As a result, theoretically more than 90 % BOD removal was achieved by DEWATS through simulation and design. The composting toilet could also provide fertilizer for the area which cannot be connected to sewage system. Utilization of gravity in the camp will also reduce pumping requirements for sewage collection system.
Keywords: Sustainable Sanitation, Haiti, IDP Camp, wastewater, BioWin-3.1, DEWATS, composting toilet