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IoT-Based Framework For Smart Waste Monitoring And Control System, A Case Study of Smart Cities.
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1  Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (Federal University of Technology), Bauchi state, Nigeria.


The environmental sanitation is very essential for healthy living. In our daily livelihood, garbage bins are usually kept without proper monitoring until they are being filled and overflow on the surrounding and spills out resulting in environmental pollution which has a serious health related issues to human beings and the environment. For smart cities, the garbage bins needs to be monitored and controlled to ensure healthy and clean environment. In the present technological advancement, real-time monitoring and control of waste disposal is a challenging area which needs an urgent attention by the research community. The traditional approach of monitoring waste in garbage bins placed in strategic locations is a very tedious and inefficient way that consume time, human effort, cost, and this is not in agreement with smart cities requirements. This research paper presents the design and implementation of an IoT-based Arduino microcontroller working with the ultrasonic sensors that detects the level of waste in the garbage bin placed from garbage locations and constantly at regular intervals display the status information as filled, half-filled or empty on an LCD screen, as well as send the content level information at those intervals to a central web-server system that displays the garbage bin levels graphically. This is achieved using a microcontroller, Wifi-module and ultrasonic sensors. The programming of the Arduino uno microcontroller was done with an Arduino IDE and embedded C programming language. The communication with the web-server was done using the hypertext pre-processor (PHP) scripting language. The prototype was designed and simulated using Proteus 8.0 professional simulator software. This process helps to automate garbage bin monitoring and control. Experimental results demonstrate a promising solution to waste management and control. A number of runnings and testing had been performed to evaluate the device workability in real situation. The measured distance from the garbage bins are transmitted to the website. This webpage performs analytic and visualization and displays a barchart showing the levels of the garbage waste, time, and location in real-time for viewing. The proposed approach is an innovative system which will helps to keep the smart cities clean using ultrasonic sensors.

Keywords: UltraSonic sensors; Smart waste monitoring and control; Internet of Things (IoT); Smart cities.