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Effects of Oleander Leaves (Nerium oleander) against Metabolism, Activity Pattern, and the Leaves Potency as Rice-Field Rat Repellent (Rattus argentiventer)
Ichsan Nurul Bari * 1 , Nur’aini Herawati 2 , Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri * 1
1  Pest Laboratory, Vertebrae Sub-division, Department of Pest and Plant Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang 45363, West Java, Indonesia
2  Indonesian Institute for Rice Research, Raya Street 9, Sukamandi, Subang 41256, Indonesia

10.3390/IECPS2020-08868
Abstract:

Nerium oleander is a plant that has historically been known as a poisonous plant in the world. In several studies, all parts of the oleander are toxic and used to control pests. However, studies on the effects of oleander leave against Rattus argentiventer as a major agricultural rodent pest are limited. This research aimed to probe the potency of oleander leaves that extracted in methanol as rice-field rat repellent by T-test analysis using three replications on mature female and male rice-field rats. The experiments involve a choice test (T-maze arena) and no-choice test (metabolic cage) from February until May 2019. The result of the experiment showed that rice-field rats on the T-Maze avoided consuming food and beverage that close to the methanol extract of oleander leaves treatment. Therefore, the treatment in metabolic cage caused metabolic disorder of rice-field rats, which was indicated by the decrease of the average consumption of food by 2.27 g and excretion of feces by 0.67 g, and also the increase of average consumption of beverage by 4.53 ml, excretion of urine by 1.25 ml. Besides, the treatment also caused daily activity patterns disorder of rice-field rats, which was significantly indicated by the increase of the average percentage of time for resting activities by 2.16 % and the decrease of time for locomotion and nesting activities (by 0.92 % and 1.25 % respectively). In conclusion, oleander leaves have the potential to provide a repellent effect on rice-field rats.

Keywords: extract; plant-based; repellence; metabolic disorder; apocynaceae
Comments on this paper
Naufal Wibowo
Good Paper
Good alternative control for rice-field rat
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you very much.

Ai Siti Santriyani
Question for othe rat species
can this method be used on other types of rat?
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you for your question,

Metabolic cage and self-design T-maze from this research, we believed could be suitable for any variety of rats and mice. Nevertheless, there might differ in terms of extract dosage amounts for application.

Adelia Putri
Good Paper
now i know an alternative to control rice-field rat
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you very much.

Ade Nurohman
question for another plant type as an alternative for rice-field rat control
Is there another plant type that can be used as an alternative for rice-field rat control?
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you for your question,

Sure they are, you can see on the latest of our research that showed from another plant https://www.scilit.net/article/92e7ce9050ec115bb6718f5f0e710347, and other types from Mr. Bari research. We believe that there are many types of plants that can be used and haven't been tested yet.

Tiara Anggita Eka Utari
Splendid article
Nevertheless i have some question. How long does the use of oleander leaves extract become an effective repellent? Is there a time limit during which its effectiveness decreases? Is there a possibility that the field mouse will become accustomed to the repellent given?
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you for the compliment and your question,

We haven't tested the durability of the extract yet on this research. It's possible the rats could be accustom to the smell but from our six days of our experiment, the majority of the rats still showed metabolic disorders from oleander treatment.

Fandi Prasetyo
How about the other kind of pest
Can the oleander leaves be used to the other pest aside rats, i.e pest bird, pest insect, etc?
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you for your question,

We see this oleander has been used in repellent tests and toxicity tests on several types of insects, but we've never seen this plant used as a bird repellent. However, this doesn't close the possibility of further research on other types of pests in the future.

Eka Nurlita Destari
How often do we have to replace the oleander leaves extract with the new one?
Do we only need to apply the oleander leaves extract once or do we replace it regularly? If we do have to replace it regularly, how long will it take until we have to replace it with the new oleander leaves extract?
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you for the compliment and your question,

From this experiment, we just applied 5 ml once on the first. The replacement could be possible if the environmental conditions are inadequate such as when the temperature is too high that can make the cloth dried fast.

Hanna Aly
Question
It's interesting that the rats showed stress behavior in this research. Is there any possibility if the stress generated comes from the research environment? not from the extract?
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you for the compliment and your question,

We've already done preventive action to reduce the stress behavior by taking a week before the research held by putting the rats in the same condition as the control treatment. Nevertheless, it's possible to make further research by examining the brains of rats to know more about stress behavior.

Annisa Megaswara
Compliment
Just finished watching your presentation, thank you for bringing this vitally important topic. It was well documented.
Jeachul Jang
Thank you so much.
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you very much.

Svasti Satriani
Compliment
Good work.
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you very much.

Magfira Fairuz
Compliment
Cool! I just found out this kind of nerium oleander leaves could be the alternative to control rice-field rats.

Besides, your research is not very long, but its contents are clear and dense. It was also quite easy for a layman like me, who's not an expert in this kind of things. It's very helpfull, thank you.
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you very much

Kinan V
great material and presentation
Looking forward to your research which can be used as a product soon.
Syifa Nabilah Subakti Putri
Thank you very much



 
 
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