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Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Level in Rice Grans Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay validated method in Kenya.
* 1 , * 2 , * 3 , * 4 , * 5
1  PhD. Student: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology/ Microbiology/ Food Security-PAUSTI-JKUAT-Nairobi. MSc. Plant Biotechnology/ Microbiology - Yaoundé 1 E-mail : +254: 743822646/ 789763900
2  Ph.D. Student in Biochemistry-Rhodes University-Grahams town-South Africa,
3  Senior Lecturer Department of Medical Microbiology College of Health Sciences Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology P.O. Box 62000 - 00200 NAIROBI-KENYA
4  Steven Runo PhD | Associate Professor | Molecular Biology | Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology Department | Kenyatta University | P. O. Box 43844-00100 GPO Nairobi Kenya
5  AMBANG Zachee Full Professor Phytopathology/Crop Protection Laboratory of Phytopathology and Microbiology Department of Plant Biology University of Yaounde 1 PO BOX 812 Yaounde (Cameroon)


Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus species distributed on three main sections of the genus namely section Flavi, section Ochraceorosei, and section Nidulantes. They are common contaminates of dietary staples worldwide, including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, spices, meats, dairy products, fruit juices, dried fruits, eggs, and feeds and foods derived from these products. Aflatoxins are unavoidable widespread natural contaminants of foodstuffs with serious impacts on food safety, health, agricultural and livestock productivity. Aflatoxin B1 is the analyte with the highest toxic significance and the most potent hepatocarcinogenic among other aflatoxins, and humans may get exposed to it at any stage of life. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is a public health concern due to their carcinogenic, acute aflatoxicosis and chronic effects, immunosuppression properties, among others.

This study focused on aflatoxin B1 in rice grains. Rice is important staple food consumed widely, and consists of a major part of the diets for half of the world population. In general, there have been few reports on the occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 in rice grains compared to other cereals in Africa. However, love the occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 levels compared to other crops, is of concern because of the high consumption of rice in several countries in Africa. This study assessed aflatoxin B1 in rice grains, occurrence, control, socioeconomic and health implications. We quantitatively determine the levels of aflatoxin B1 content using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method.

43.1 % of examined samples were positive in which 15.9 % for local rice and 27.2 % of imported rice, respectively, and 11.3 % of examined samples are above the maximum limit of aflatoxin B1 in rice established by European Union. According to the manufacturer instructions, the limit of detection is 1 μg/kg (ppb) in cereals. The concentration of aflatoxin B1 in examined samples ranged from 0 μg/kg to 3.2 μg/kg. These results are indicative of exposure of the population to aflatoxin and possible health hazard. The procedure used in this study is suitable for detection of mycotoxins at a very low concentration.

Keywords: Rice; contamination; aflatoxins; occurrence; incidence; exposure; food; safety