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Aluminum in dental implants: how to reduce a potential risk to patient´s health?
Željka Petrović * 1 , Ankica Šarić 1 , Ines Despotović 1 , Jozefina Katić 2 , Marin Petković 3
1  Rudjer Boskovic Institute
2  University of Zagreb Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology
3  Adentro Dental Studio, Zagreb, Croatia

10.3390/CMDWC2021-09933 (registering DOI)

Some dental implants present on the market contain aluminum, which represents a potential risk to the health, since aluminum is associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer´s disease. An oral cavity, into which the implant is placed, is an aggressive environment that can, under certain circumstances, cause degradation / corrosion of the implant resulting in metal ions release in tissues, organs, and bloodstream. Therefore, control of the chemical composition as well as the surface characteristics of implants is necessary. Collagen and sodium alendronate molecules were self-assembled on surface of the commercial titanium implant containing 6% at. of aluminum. Since dental implants have to osseointegrate with surrounding bones, molecules with known positive effects on skeletal system were selected. Density Functional Theory calculation results indicated an exergonic reaction (DG*INT ˂ 0) between chosen molecules and implant surface, while electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results pointed to improved anti-corrosion properties of both collagen- and alendronate-functionalized surfaces (protective effectiveness > 92%) compared to “bare” implant surface. The proposed functionalization could provide better quality control during the implant production process and thus minimize possible negative biological effects on patient´s health.

Keywords: titanium dental implant; aluminum; sodium alendronate; collagen; surface functionalization; DFT; EIS; anti-corrosion properties