Call for Papers
The 1st International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences will be held on 15-29 November 2016. All proceedings will be held online at https://sciforum.net/conference/ecws-1
Throughout this event, we aim to cover the following topics:
- A: Water Resources Management and Monitoring
- B: Water and Wastewater Pollution
- C: Emerging Contaminants in the Water Cycle
- D: Water Supply and Distribution
- E: Water Policies and Planning Section
- F: Wetlands and Lakes
The conference will be completely free of charge—both to attend, and for scholars to upload and present their latest work on the conference platform. There will be a possibility to submit selected papers to the journal Water (ISSN 2073-4441; 1.687 (2015); http://www.mdpi.com/journal/water). ECWS-1 offers you the opportunity to participate in this international, scholarly conference without having the concern or expenditure of travel — all you need is your computer and access to the Internet. We would like to invite you to “attend” this conference by presenting your latest work.
Abstracts (in English) should be submitted by 15 September 2016 15 October 2016 online at http://www.sciforum.net/login. For accepted abstracts, the full paper can be submitted by 1 October 2016 1 November 2016. The conference itself will be held 15-19 November 2016.
For information about the procedure for submission, peer-review, revision and acceptance of conference proceedings papers, please refer to the section "Instructions for Authors" https://sciforum.net/conference/ecws-1/page/instructions.
Instructions for Authors
- Scholars interested in participating with the conference can submit their abstract (about 200-300 words covering the areas of manuscripts for the proceedings issue) online on this website until 15 September 2016 15 October 2016.
- The Conference Committee will pre-evaluate, based on the submitted abstract, whether a contribution from the authors of the abstract will be welcome for the 1st International Electronic Conference on Water Science. All authors will be notified by 30 September 2016 31 October 2016 about the acceptance of their abstract.
- If the abstract is accepted for this conference, the author is asked to submit his/her manuscript, optionally along with a PowerPoint and/or video presentation of his/her paper (only PDF), until the submission deadline of 31 October 2016 10 November 2016.
- The manuscripts and presentations will be available on https://sciforum.net/conference/ecws-1 for discussion and rating during the time of the conference 15-29 November 2016.
- The Open Access Journals Water, Resources, Membranes, Fluids will publish the proceedings of the conference as a Special Issue and accepted papers will be published in the proceedings of the conference. After the conference, the Conference Committee will select manuscripts that may be included for publication in this Special Issue.
Manuscripts for the proceedings issue must have the following organization:
- Full author names
- Affiliations (including full postal address) and authors' e-mail addresses
- Results and Discussion
Manuscripts should be prepared in MS Word or any other word processor and should be converted to the PDF format before submission. The publication format will be PDF. The manuscript should count at least 3 pages (incl. figures, tables and references). There is no page limit on the length, although authors are asked to keep their papers as concise as possible.
Authors are encouraged to prepare a presentation in PowerPoint or similar software, to be displayed online along with the Manuscript. Slides, if available, will be displayed directly in the website using Sciforum.net's proprietary slides viewer. Slides can be prepared in exactly the same way as for any traditional conference where research results can be presented. Slides should be converted to the PDF format before submission so that our process can easily and automatically convert them for online displaying.
Besides their active participation within the forum, authors are also encouraged to submit video presentations. If you are interested in submitting, please contact the conference organizer at [email protected] to get to know more about the procedure. This is an unique way of presenting your paper and discuss it with peers from all over the world. Make a difference and join us for this project!
Submission: Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.sciforum.net/login by registering and logging in to this website.
Accepted File Formats
- MS Word: Manuscript prepared in MS Word must be converted into a single file before submission. When preparing manuscripts in MS Word, the Electronic Conference on Materials Science Microsoft Word template file (see download below) must be used. Please do not insert any graphics (schemes, figures, etc.) into a movable frame which can superimpose the text and make the layout very difficult.
- Electronic Conference on Water Science MS Word Template File
- References: References must be numbered in order of appearance in the text (including tables and legends) and listed individually at the end of the manuscript. We recommend preparing the references with a bibliography software package, such as EndNote, ReferenceManager or Zotero to avoid typing mistakes and duplicated references. Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the main text and in the reference list. In the text, reference numbers should be placed in square brackets [ ], and placed before the punctuation; for example , [1–3] or [1,3]. For embedded citations in the text with pagination, use both parentheses and brackets to indicate the reference number and page numbers; for example  (p. 10). or  (pp. 101–105). The Reference list should include the full title as recommended by the ACS style guide. The style file for endnote, MDPI.ens, can be found at http://endnote.com/downloads/style/mdpi
- Author List and Affiliations: Authors' full first and last names must be provided. The initials of any middle names can be added. The PubMed/MEDLINE standard format is used for affiliations: complete address information including city, zip code, state/province, country, and all email addresses. At least one author should be designated as corresponding author, and his or her email address and other details should be included at the end of the affiliation section. Please read the criteria to qualify for authorship.
- Figures, Schemes and Tables: All figure files should be separately uploaded during submission. Figures and schemes must be provided at a sufficiently high resolution (minimum 1000 pixels width/height, or a resolution of 300 dpi or higher). All Figure file formats are accepted. However, TIFF, JPEG, EPS and PDF files are preferred. Materials can publish multimedia files in articles or as supplementary materials. Please get in touch with the Editorial office for further information. All Figures, Schemes and Tables should also be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Figure 1, Scheme I, Figure 2, Scheme II, Table 1, etc.). All Figures, Schemes and Tables should have a short explanatory title and a caption. All table columns should have an explanatory heading. To facilitate the copy-editing of larger tables, smaller fonts may be used, but in no less than 8 pt. in size. Authors should use the Table option of Microsoft Word to create tables. For multi-panel figures, the file must contain all data in one file. For tips on creating multi-panel figures, please read the helpful advice provided by L2 Molecule. Authors are encouraged to prepare figures and schemes in color (RGB at 8-bit per channel). Full color graphics will be published free of charge.
For further enquiries please contact us at [email protected].
Authors wishing to publish their papers are asked to abide to the following rules:
- Any facts that might be perceived as a possible conflict of interest of the author(s) must be disclosed in the paper prior to submission.
- Authors should accurately present their research findings and include an objective discussion of the significance of their findings.
- Data and methods used in the research need to be presented in sufficient detail in the paper, so that other researchers can replicate the work.
- Raw data should preferably be publicly deposited by the authors before submission of their manuscript. Authors need to at least have the raw data readily available for presentation to the referees and the editors of the journal, if requested. Authors need to ensure appropriate measures are taken so that raw data is retained in full for a reasonable time after publication.
- Simultaneous submission of manuscripts to more than one journal is not tolerated.
- Republishing content that is not novel is not tolerated (for example, an English translation of a paper that is already published in another language will not be accepted).
- If errors and inaccuracies are found by the authors after publication of their paper, they need to be promptly communicated to the editors of this journal so that appropriate actions can be taken. Please refer to our policy regarding publication of publishing addenda and corrections.
- Your manuscript should not contain any information that has already been published. If you include already published figures or images, please obtain the necessary permission from the copyright holder to publish under the CC-BY license.
- Plagiarism, data fabrication and image manipulation are not tolerated.
MDPI AG, the publisher of the Sciforum.net platform, is an open access publisher. We believe that authors should retain the copyright to their scholarly works. Hence, by submitting a Communication paper to this conference, you retain the copyright of your paper, but you grant MDPI AG the non-exclusive right to publish this paper online on the Sciforum.net platform. This means you can easily submit your paper to any scientific journal at a later stage and transfer the copyright to its publisher (if required by that publisher).
List of accepted submissions (29)
|sciforum-008720||A hydrogeological model for groundwater management of a shallow low-lying coastal aquifer in southern Finland under climate change||Samrit Luoma, Birgitta Backman||
A shallow low-lying coastal sand aquifer in southern Finland is vulnerable to the climate change and human activities. Under future climate change, a rise in sea-level would cause some parts of the aquifer and the water intake well to be under seawater. This, together with the predicted increase in precipitation, would enhance groundwater recharge and raise the water table, consequently contributing to the potential deterioration of groundwater quality or potential flooding in the low-lying aquifer area. An information on geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer for the climate change adaptation plan including the possible new locations of water intake wells was needed. This study aimed to construct a three-dimensional geological model and evaluate heterogeneity of the aquifer to provide a geological framework for groundwater flow model and the assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The methods used consist of a stochastic-geostatistical approach incorporated with groundwater flow model to predict the distributions of the superficial layers of a heterogeneous aquifer and to identify the distributions of the aquifer medias (sand and gravel) as well as groundwater flow system. In addition, the LiDAR-based digital elevation model was utilized to define the flood prone areas under the climate change scenarios. The three-dimensional geological model provides a better characterization of the heterogeneity of the aquifer and improved reliability of subsequent groundwater flow model and vulnerability assessment in the aquifer area. The proposed new locations of water intake wells and the results of the study provided useful information for local authorities for groundwater management in future.
|sciforum-009566||A short-term water demand forecasting model based on a short moving window of previously observed data||Elena Pacchin, Stefano Alvisi, Marco Franchini||N/A||
Short-term water demand forecasting is a useful tool for water distribution system management. In fact, an accurate prediction of water consumptions of a network or a part of it can support the scheduling of the main devices of the network, such as pumping stations or valves.
In this paper a model for short term water demand forecasting is proposed. The model is structured in order to provide at each hour the water demand forecast for the next 24 hour basing on coefficients estimated according to a short moving window of previously observed data.
More in details, the hourly forecast is performed in two steps: in the first step the average water demand for the next 24 hours (Q24) is forecasted multiplying the average water consumption observed in the last 24 hours by a previously estimated coefficient; in the second step, the water consumption of each of the next 24 hours is forecasted multiplying the forecasted Q24 by hourly coefficients. The coefficients’ values (both the one used to forecast the Q24 and those used to forecast the hourly values) are updated at each hour on the basis of the water demands observed in the last n (e.g. n=4) weeks.
The model is applied to a real case study; the analysis of the results, and their comparison with those provided by another short term water demand forecasting model already presented in the scientific literature, highlights that the proposed model provides an accurate and robust forecast, resulting in an efficient tool for real time management of water distribution networks requiring a very small effort for its parameterization.
|sciforum-009544||A study on drought and wet conditions in different basins and climates||Mohammad Valipour||N/A||
The Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI) may be considered for studying hydrologic conditions and agricultural water management. By using this indicator, water resources conditions of Colorado and Oregon basins were investigated from extremely wet to extreme drought. The SWSI values can also be plotted as a time series graph while critical years were specified. This allows the user to graphically visualize the values from year to year and to see how the current year's values change from year to year. Managers can then refer to records from critical years in determining strategies for dealing with the current years’ water supply. Also evident is whether the streamflow component or the reservoir component is the predominant driving force at any given time. SWSI's can be an excellent water management tool in determining overall risk and management strategies. It gives the water user and manager more information than simply streamflow or reservoir level alone. According to the results, obtained categories based of SWSI values are indicated hydrologic conditions for Colorado and Oregon States with two different climates. Although decisions only based on geographic and climatic information due to the insufficient and sometimes contradictory results than the SWSI can cause water loss or increase the risk of drought.
|sciforum-008718||An approach to measuring resilience to manage water supply systems||Ángela Martínez-Codina, Francisco Cubillo||
Water supply systems are exposed to events that affect the normal service provision. Water companies should follow their own policy rules to manage and overcome these types of threats. In this article, resilience is identified as the capacities of the system to delimit the impacts of hazardous event, which may be characterized by its severity and duration. The effects of disruptive events to the water service delivery are classified into water scarcity, discontinuity of water supply, discontinuity of hydraulic conditions and discontinuity of drinking water quality. The loss of service level is established by failure thresholds named as a standard level, a normative level, an accepted level and a critical level. These thresholds allow formulating management actions at different stages to reach the standard level of service that identifies when the systems returns to normal conditions. The global model defined by the loss of service and time is used to measure resilience by means of a resilience factor. It depends on each type of defined threat and considers the mentioned failure thresholds. The methodology is applied to a complex real-life system, managed by Canal de Isabel II Gestión (Spain) for different study cases: a drought, pipe breaks and events that affect the water quality conditions. Real data allow contrasting the protocols of management established by the water company. The methodology helps water utilities update their protocols for a certain hazard and provide useful information to plan their investments in order to improve the system resilience.
|sciforum-009024||Analyzing precipitation predictions in Iran||Mohammad Valipour||N/A||
In this study, critical areas of Iran were determined using 50-year rainfall data and ARIMA model. For this purpose, annual rainfall data of 112 different synoptic stations in Iran were gathered. To summarize, it could be concluded that: ARIMA model was an appropriate tool to forecast annual rainfall. According to obtained results from relative error (RE) between observed and forecasted values, five stations include IRANSHAHR, SIRJAN, NAEIN, ZAHEDAN, and KISH, were in critical condition. Therefore, in these areas due to lack of accurate forecasting, agriculture water management and crop pattern presenting must be done very carefully. As the figure 1 in 65% from forecasted annual rainfalls by ARIMA model amount of relative error was less than 0.1 (10%). These areas were in the safe range. 35% of forecasting had a relative error between 0.1-0.2 (10-20%) and these areas were in the alarm range. Finally only 5% of all ARIMA forecasting occurred in the critical range. This showed a high ability of ARIMA model in annual rainfall forecasting. At 45 stations accrued rainfalls with amounts of less than half of average in the 50-year period. Therefore, in these 45 areas, chance of drought is more than other areas of Iran.
About this conference
About 1st International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences
The papers will be organized in 6 parallel sessions, assigned to the following sub-themes and issues:
- A: Water Resources Management and Monitoring
- B: Water and Wastewater Pollution
- C: Emerging Contaminants in the Water Cycle
- D: Water Supply and Distribution
- E: Water Policies and Planning Section
- F: Wetlands and Lakes
Deadline for Abstract Submission: 15 September 2016 15 October 2016
Notification of Acceptance: 30 September 2016 31 October 2016
Deadline for Submission of Full Paper: 31 October 2016 10 November 2016
Conference Open: 15-29 November 2016
Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Püttmann
Chair of the 1st International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences
Professor in Environmental Analytical Chemistry,
Goethe University Frankfurt am Main,
Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences,
Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry,
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Prof. Dr. Athanasios Loukas, University of Thessaly, Greece
Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Drizo, Heriot-Watt University, UK
Prof. Dr. Jiangyong Hu, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Prof. Dr. Marco Franchini, University of Ferrara, Italy
Prof. Dr. Bruno Brunone, University of Perugia, Italy
Prof. Dr. Julio Berbel, University of Cordoba Campus de Rabanales, Spain
Prof. Dr. Richard C. Smardon, State University of New York, USAConference Secretary
Ms. Mengdie Hu
MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: [email protected]
A. Water Resources Management and Monitoring
Prof. Dr. Athanasios Loukas, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos, Greece
Water has a critical role in sustaining human health, food security, energy production and ecosystem services. Population growth, climate, environmental and land use change increasingly threaten water quality and quantity. Successful management of water resources requires an integrative understanding of coupled human and natural system components that can be used to generate practical, scientifically sound, economically-efficient and socially acceptable solutions that are sustainable. Furthermore, adequate monitoring of water resources plays a key role for the understanding of the surface water and groundwater systems functionality. This session provides a forum for discussing the innovations in water resources monitoring, the advances in water resources systems analysis, planning and management to inform public policy, water resource allocation, conflict resolution, water governance, and sustainable development in a changing world.
Specifically, this session focuses on recent advances in science as well as in practical application, including:
- The development, analysis, and application of new data collection techniques, such as environmental sensor networks, satellite imagery and participatory data collection methods;
- New understanding of hydrological processes;
- The impact of climate and land use change on surface water and groundwater;
- Innovative water management strategies, such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR);
- Methodologies for assessing the impact and cost-effectiveness of selected response measures toward an optimal water allocation;
- Best water scarcity and droughts indicators across a range of scales and develop specific targets regarding water efficiency, ecosystem services which allow their sustainability in the river basins;
- Studies on how different water allocation strategies in transboundary international basins could impact water resources.
Keywords: water resources management; water resources monitoring; climate change; land use change; water allocation; water efficiency; ecosystem services; sustainability
Professor Wilhelm Püttmann
Professor Athanasios Loukas, University of Thessaly
B. Water and Wastewater Pollution
Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Drizo, Professor in Water Technology, School of Energy, Geosciences, Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Water quality deterioration caused by population growth and continuous expansion of industrial and agricultural activities has become an issue of a global concern. Following "Water for Life" Decade 2005-2015 the United Nations recognizes eutrophication as the most prevalent water pollution problem globally. It is caused by perpetual nutrients loading from human activities (agricultural, domestic sewage, municipal, industrial and urban runoff) resulting in harmful blue-green algae blooms (HABs). Phosphorus loading has been recognized as the principal trigger of eutrophication. Over the past 6 years the number of coastal areas worldwide experiencing symptoms of eutrophication increased by nearly 85%. As much as 78% of the assessed continental U.S. coastal area and approximately 65% of Europe's Atlantic coast exhibit symptoms of eutrophication. The actual magnitude most likely much greater given that in many regions of the world (e.g., Asia, Latin America, Africa) it has just started to be researched. The situation is even more alarming for freshwater resources with over 50% of the lakes worldwide being identified as eutrophic. HABs are reducing potable water supplies and cause significant losses to the economies. Global Climate Change will promote cyanobacterial growth and exacerbate HABs at much larger scales.
Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products, veterinary antibiotics and medicines) releases in the waters is becoming a problem of increasing concern as current conventional wastewater technologies are not equipped to provide treatment for this kind of pollutants. Rubbish thrown directly into oceans represents another concern. It has been estimated that worldwide every hour about 680 tonnes of waste gets thrown directly into the oceans, more than half of it is made out of plastic. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also known as the Pacific trash vortex, spans waters from the West Coast of North America to Japan covering an area size of Western Europe.
In recent years a number of innovative technologies have been developed that showed potential in reducing water pollution. There is an urgent need for a radical change in water policies and technology verification programmes worldwide in order to enable these technologies application at national, international and global scales.
Keywords: water pollution; water and wastewater treatment; municipal wastewater effluents; residential wastewater; agricultural effluents and runoff; industrial effluents; urban stormwater runoff; eutrophication; nutrients loading; harmful algae blooms; emerging contaminants; ocean trash and sea pollution; innovative technologies
Professor Aleksandra Drizo
C. Emerging Contaminants in the Water Cycle
Dr. Jiangyong Hu, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
As micropolluants issues have become increasingly important due to rapid population growth, industrialization, and so on, it would be of great importance to have such a chance to gather water professionals from all over the world to share technical expertise and solutions in micropllutants monitoring, treatment and management and to foster potential international cooperation. Emerging contaminants with known or unknown health effects, once produced, will find their own way to enter into the aquatic environments. Their fates and behaviours in the water environment are still not fully understood and their associated risks have not been clearly known. Removal of emerging contaminants still remains as a big challenge in today's water industry after the bulk pollutants such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are successfully dealt with for decades. Regulatory framework relevant to emerging contaminants is still under early development stage. Water scientists and professionals are therefore urged to come together through this wonderful platform for an exchange of views and experiences on emerging contaminants.
Keywords: emerging contaminants; monitoring; fate and behaviour; treatment; risk; regulation; management
Dr. Jiangyong Hu
D. Water Supply and Distribution
Prof. Dr. Marco Franchini, Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy
Prof. Dr. Bruno Brunone, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA), University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia, Italy
The aim of this conference is to provide a forum for all those who are interested in water pipe systems: researchers—from Universities and research centres—and design and consulting engineers—from water authorities and companies. Moreover, the conference would like to serve as a bridge between research, engineering applications and management aspects. According to the web tremendous potential in terms of results spreading, this conference is a compulsory event for shearing experiences from people all around the world without shouldering the financial burdens imposed by the time-consuming participation in person to a "traditional" Conference.
Following successful international events in the field of distribution and transmission pipe systems, the main focus of this conference is on system modelling, water demand forecasting and characterization, leakage and energy management, water demand, roughness and leakage calibration under uncertainty, districtualization, real time monitoring and control, optimal pump scheduling, system surveying and performance assessment (with a particular attention on data management and advances in sensors), sustainable management, effects of climate change on management rules, water quality related problems, and “worst-case” scenarios (with a particular attention on transients).
Case studies, research papers, and authoritative review articles are welcome (particularly those dealing with paradigms for smart cities).
Keywords: water distribution systems; water supply systems; climate change; mathematical modelling; uncertainty; real time control; water system efficiency; leakage control and quantification
Professor Bruno Brunone, University of Perugia
Dr. Marco Franchini
E. Water Policies and Planning
Prof. Dr. Julio Berbel, Department of Economics, Sociology and Agricultural Policy, University of Cordoba Campus de Rabanales, E-14014 Córdoba, Spain
Groundwater (GW) is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. In water scarce regions, aquifers usually suffer pressures that are simultaneously quantitative (over extraction) and qualitative (chemical pollution, saline intrusion). Water scarcity is a global issue but its management is a local problem. Aquifers play a vital role in meeting water demands. Pressures of urban, industrial and agricultural water uses are both quantitative (over-allocation and illegal abstraction) and qualitative (chemical pollution and saline intrusion); moreover, they are transmitted to surface water and terrestrial ecosystems connected to groundwater systems.
Any GW management plan should be supported among others, in the following keystones: a) reasonable knowledge of the aquifer; b) satisfactory monitoring of aquifer evolution, the monitoring should use remote sensing, piezometric and aquifer control and voluntary user’s abstraction volumetric supervising; c) good agro-economic system knowledge; d) use of socio-economic methods to enhance stakeholder participation and aquifer governance. Negotiation and active involvement with participation of water managers, experts, stakeholders and representatives of the general public requires decision support tools (Environmental Decision Support Systems; EDSS) that build on transparency and flexibility in order to reach sound action plans and management instruments.
The objective of this session is to review the experience in technical, normative and economic instruments used for groundwater planning and management and to analyze the state of the art and breakthrough technologies that may improve GW management and guarantee the sustainability. Topics addressed will look for the analysis of human pressures, economic and environmental impacts of GW use and over exploitation and public and private responses, the analysis of the evolution of GW systems from open exploitation to closure, the socio-economic aspects of GW management and strategies for maximizing stakeholder participation and sustainable governance systems, the groundwater protection strategies and mechanisms for negotiation and managing conflict, use of Multiple criteria decision making models for GW management and other topics relevant for GW management and planning.
Keywords: decision support systems; remote sensing; groundwater vulnerability; groundwater management; public participatory modelling; multiple criteria decision making; common pool resources management; regulatory institutions; energy costs; irrigated agriculture; game theory; water economics
Dr. Julio Berbel
F. Wetlands and Lakes
Prof. Dr. Richard C. Smardon, Department of Environmental Studies, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NYU 13210, USA
Wetlands, lakes and their watersheds, as aquatic systems, provide valuable ecosystem services such as fish and wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling and carbon storage. From a more anthropocentric view these ecosystem services may include food, water supply, waste assimilation as well as aesthetic, recreation and educational opportunities. But these same aquatic systems are heavily stressed by human induced water pollution, land use encroachment and reduced watershed flows due to consumptive water usage in both developed and developing countries. So high quality interdisciplinary aquatic science is needed to address both 1) the nature of such ecosystem services and functions, 2) the stresses on these aquatic systems, and 3) appropriate management strategies to reduce or eliminate such stresses. Climate change is also an increasing dominating factor inducing gradual long-term shifts impacting the health of these aquatic systems – so again we need to understand such shifts and their effects.
Keywords: wetland; lakes; watersheds; ecosystem services; aquatic science; stresses; management; climate change
Dr. Richard Smardon, SUNY/ESF