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  • Open access
  • 26 Reads
Gene re-ranking and controllability analysis of protein – protein network for discovery potential drug target of breast cancer at different stages
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The protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) is essential for functional processing and mechanism of multiple complex diseases. Recently, control theory has applied to protein interaction with the aims of identify the minimum set of nodes that can drive the whole network to the desired state. Here, we use different statistic network inference methods to generate the highest-scored re-ranking gene list as the source for constructing protein-protein interaction network. Then we characterize structural controllability of directed and weighted PPINs for breast cancer stages. The maximum matching approach for controllability analysis allows classifying nodes into three categories: critical, intermittent and redundant. This leads to identifying the most important proteins as critical nodes for each stage of breast cancer. In total, 70 critical nodes as drug targets have been revealed across stages in this study.

  • Open access
  • 15 Reads
Decolorization of the azo dye Reactive Violet 5 by UV-A-Fenton and ultrasound-Fenton processes

The textile dye reactive violet 5 (RV5) is mutagenic, and teratogenic as well as carcinogenic and has to be degraded before the release of textile wastewater into the environment. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can be applied, in which by catalytic and non-catalytic processes generates hydroxyl radicals (HO•) with high oxidation potential (2.80 V), which in turn degrades the azo dyes. Among the AOPs, Fenton based processes can be applied to degrade the RV5 from aqueous solution. These processes can be enhanced with application of UV-A and ultrasound radiation, which are economic and environmentally safer than UV-C radiation. The aim of this work was to test a UV-A LED and an ultrasound (US) reactor in RV5 degradation. Different AOPs were tested, and only UV-A-Fenton and Fenton processes showed the highest RV5 degradation with 95.5 and 86.6%, respectively. The UV-A-Fenton was optimized by variation of the pH (3.0 – 7.0), H2O2 (2.0 – 16.0 mM) and Fe2+ (0.05 – 0.20 mM) concentrations. The best operational conditions (pH = 3.0, [RV5] = 0.28 mM, [H2O2] = 4.0 mM, [Fe2+] = 0.15 mM) were applied to the US-Fenton process, achieving a RV5 removal of 95.7%. The lowest values of electric energy per order (EEO) = 11 kWh m-3 order-1 and specific applied energy (ESAE) = 38 kWh mol-1 order-1 were obtained with the treatment of RV5 aqueous solution by UV-A-Fenton process. This work shows that textile dyes can be treated by UV-A-Fenton and US-Fenton and that UV-A LED reactors can be economic.

  • Open access
  • 31 Reads
Multilevel phase-switches generation in alkali vapors

We attempt to demonstrate optical phase switches in a typical light storage experiment. We computed propagation dynamics of light pulses in sodium-23, rubidium-87, and potassium-39 vapours. These vapours have the same tensorial sets of the density matrix with a nuclear spin I=3/2. The energy scheme is known as the double- Λ system. We considered an excitation mechanism in which one of two Λ systems is excited by two-colour pulses, probe and drive, following the standard electromagnetically induced transparency configuration. The probe channel contains two more pulses at far times. Gain is generated through the drive channel and exposed during propagation. Generated train propagates with a nearly minimum uncertainty product. We further investigated the spatiotemporal phase variations of the pulses and found discrete phase distribution for different vapours. The spatiotemporal evolution of the irreducible tensorial sets defines structural differential equations. Additionally, it is particularly suitable for parallel processing. We hope our study finds an application in comparison to alkali vapour magnetometry.

  • Open access
  • 37 Reads
On the influence of different initial conditions on the soil temperature of Egypt using a regional climate model

Soil temperature is an important indicator for monitoring the root’s environment of natural vegetation or crops. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are valuable tools for simulating the soil temperature profile on a hierarchy of time scales ranging from daily to annual. Focusing on the daily scale, two eight-year simulations (2011-2018) were conducted to examine the influence of different initial conditions on the simulated soil temperature profile to using a regional climate model (RegCM4). The two simulations were driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis and the output was compared with respect to in-situ observation. The first simulation was initialized with an arbitrary initial condition (i.e., from bare soil) and it was referred to as RegCM4-S1; the second one was initialized with a long-term spin-up file and it was designated as RegCM4-S2. The results showed that the RegCM4-S2 performs better than RegCM4-S1 in simulating the shallow soil temperature profile. Moreover, the RegCM4-S2 shows a poor performance in simulating the soil temperature of deep depths but still outperforms the RegCM4-S1 with respect to the in-situ observation. With a particular focus on the deep depths, the soil temperature parameterization needs to be revised and it is necessary to implement a numerical scheme to reduce the spin-up time.

  • Open access
  • 30 Reads
Synthesis and Antituberculosis Activity of substituted 3,4-(dicoumarin-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl furans and pyrroles

Abstract: Increasing rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely-drug resistant (XDR) cases of tuberculosis (TB) strains are alarming, which eventually hampered an effective control of the pathogenic disease. In present study, 9 derivatives of 2,3-bis(2-oxochromen-3-yl)-1,4-diphenyl-butane-1,4-dione (11a-c) and 3,4-(dicoumarin-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl furans and pyrroles (12a-f) have been synthesized successfully. The experimental data for the Anti-tuberculosis activity (using MABA assay) of 2,3-bis(2-oxochromen-3-yl)-1,4-diphenyl-butane-1,4-dione (11a-c) revealed that in this series compound 11a showed better minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.6 mg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37 RV strain) ATCC No- 27294 which was better than the MIC value of Pyrazinamide-3.125 mg/ml, Streptomycin-6.25 mg/ml and Ciprofloxacin- 3.125 mg/ml. Our synthesis and in-vitro studies thus pointed out the moderate to good anti-TB profiles of substituted furans and pyrroles.

  • Open access
  • 40 Reads
Bias-correcting the temperature extremes of Egypt using a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4)

In the present study, the regional climate model (RegCM4) is used to project the temperature extremes of Egypt under two future scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and 8.5). To achieve this goal, the spatial pattern of the simulated temperature extremes is first examined. After that, the simulated temperature extremes are bias-corrected in the historical period with respect to in-situ observations using Linear-Scaling (LS) technique. Then, the LS is used to correct the two future scenarios of the period 2006-2100. The RegCM4 is downscaled by the medium resolution of the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute (MPI-ESM-MR) with 50 km horizontal grid spacing over Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and then eventually nested over Egypt with 20 km horizontal grid spacing. The results show that the simulated temperature extremes show a notable increase under the RCP8.5 scenario more than the RCP4.5 scenario. Furthermore, the RegCM4 performance is remarkably improved when the LS method is used. Such performance is indicated by a low mean bias in the validation period compared to the evaluation period over majority of stations. Therefore, the RegCM4 can be used to project the temperature extremes using the LS over the location of interest. In addition, using multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) is necessary to account for the sensitivity of the RegCM4 to the atmospheric forcing.

  • Open access
  • 41 Reads
Intranasal nanoparticles for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders
Published: 13 December 2022 by MDPI in 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences session Student Session

The treatment of central nervous system disorders, such as depression and anxiety, relies on the oral administration of drugs with antidepressant or anxiolytic action. Given the increased incidence of these diseases, and the disadvantages of oral drug administration, studies are being done with the aim of developing new ways of treatment, in order to improve the effectiveness of the therapies that are applied.

The intranasal pathway gained interest as a route of administration of drugs to the intended target, the brain, due to allowing a direct transport to the central nervous system. In addition to the route of administration, nanoparticles have been studied as possible alternatives to conventional formulations, with the objective of improving drug bioavailability. The present work aimed to analyze the potential of intranasal nanoparticle administration for the treatment of depression and anxiety, using the analysis of several studies already performed.

From the carried-out analysis, it was concluded that nanoparticle development takes into consideration the characteristics of the nasal mucosa to allow enhancing drug absorption and permeability. The use of nanoparticles allows to protect the drug from enzymatic degradation, and the modulation of its components provides advantages for intranasal administration. In vitro drug release and ex vivo drug permeation studies were conducted, demonstrating, in the majority of cases, an advantage of the use of these formulations. In vivo studies, in rats or mice, were also carried out, allowing to verify the efficacy of the treatment with the developed formulations, with results being very promising.

  • Open access
  • 21 Reads
Study of the Stabilizing Agent Influence in the Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue using Silver Nanoparticles

Water shortage is currently a serious problem that was aggravated by the contamination of rivers and lakes by industrial waste, such as organic dyes. Inadequate or inexistent treatment allows the contaminants to disseminate through rivers and seas, impacting Human health and aquatic biodiversity. One of the most used industrial dyes is methylene blue (MB), which is toxic in high doses and prevents solar radiation to penetrate the water's surface. To reduce water contamination and environmental impact, the organic dyes could be degraded, generating less harmful and colourless substances. The use of nanoparticles as catalysts has been shown potential since they have excellent catalytic activity due to their high surface-to-volume ratio. In this context, this work aims to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and use them in the degradation of MB. AgNPs were prepared in water by the chemical reduction strategy, using NaBH4 as the reducing agent. Four different organic stabilizers were used: sodium citrate, ascorbic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and poly(vinyl alcohol). The MB degradation in the presence of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, for a maximum of 30 minutes of reaction. The results showed the formation of AgNPs with a spherical shape for all the stabilizers used. All the AgNPs prepared were efficient in the degradation of MB, having degraded more than 90%. However, the AgNPs stabilized with sodium citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone presented the best catalytic performance. Nevertheless, the four AgNPs prepared are potential catalysts for the degradation of organic dyes of wastewater.

  • Open access
  • 25 Reads
An Assessment of Physico-chemical Properties and Microbial Count in Dairy Wastewater in Savar Area, Bangladesh

The dairy sector in Bangladesh releases huge amounts of wastewater in the open environment. Dairy wastewater is enriched with different types of hazardous contaminants which can cause various health complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of dairy wastewater by determining the physico-chemical properties of tap water and wastewater from three farms from Islamnagar zone, Savar, Dhaka, and also assess the significant impacts of wastewater on the environment. The most important physico-chemical properties investigated include: pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and microbial colony count. Results reveal that in tap water, the pH ranges from 7.11 to 7.20 and in wastewater, it was 7.30 to 7.77. The TDS in tap water ranged from 109 to 116 mg/L and in wastewater it ranged from 451 to 2000 mg/L. The EC values were found in tap water from 0.22 to 0.23 mS/cm, whereas in wastewater it ranged from 0.86 to 13.20 mS/cm. And for DO, the tap water showed a range from 4.21 to 6.25 mg/L and in wastewater it was found from 0.98 to 1.86 mg/L. The pH and TDS stayed within the standard limits in the physical-chemical parameters assessed, however, the EC and DO are not within the DoE (Department of Environment, Bangladesh) allowed limits. More microbial colonies have occurred in wastewater than that in tap water. The study demonstrates that the discharge of dairy wastewater in the open field is detrimental to our ecosystem, a proper treatment facility is essential.

  • Open access
  • 38 Reads
Advanced Renewable Nanomaterials for Sustainable Development

At the UN General Assembly, 193 United Nations Member States adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This initiative is a global call to action by 2030. To achieve sustainable development, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been defined, and nanoscience and nanotechnology play a critical role in these goals. Nanotechnology is regarded as an enabling technology since it involves the study, modification, manipulation, or creation of processes, structures, materials, or devices at the nano-scale. Nanotechnology is rapidly expanding in many areas, including energy, automotive, medicine, and food, as well as textile, chemical, and electrical-electronic industries, and is expected to have a bright future. Nanomaterials are materials that are purposefully designed in a size range of 1 to 100 nm in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in every area of science and engineering, resulting in higher improvements. In particular, lignocellulose-based nanomaterials with a nanofibrillar structure are produced from natural resources and can be used in a wide range of commercial applications. The eco-friendliness, unique properties, and diverse capabilities of nanomaterials are being explored in order to develop innovative materials and applications in almost all areas. This review focused on nanotechnology and advanced renewable nanomaterials for sustainable development.

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