Please login first

List of accepted submissions

Show results per page
Find papers
  • Open access
  • 40 Reads

Bread is a staple grain product that many consumers eat every day. The quality and durability of bread depends, among others, on the recipe, the baking method, the bread cooling method after baking, and the way of packaging. Producers use a lot of techniques to extend the freshness of baking and delay the staling process. In order to extend the freshness of bread, producers add enzyme preparations, lipid compounds, emulsifiers or hydrocolloids to the recipe composition.

The purpose of the work was to determine the effect of three types of fiber (wheat, oat, potato) with two fiber lengths on bread staling process. Type 750 bread wheat flour and fiber addition with a specific length of fiber in the amount of 2%, 4% and 6% (mass basis) were used to bake bread. Studies on the physical and chemical properties of flour were carried out. The bread volume, porosity and texture, crumb moisture and bread staling using differential scanning calorimetry on the day of baking, after 24h, 72h, were determined.

Bread analysis was performed using a differential scanning calorimeter - DSC, Q200, TA Instruments. All measurements were made under a nitrogen atmosphere. The reference sample was an empty aluminium pan, hermetically sealed. The DSC curve of bread mass (10-15 mg) was obtained by heating the sample from -50 °C to 110 °C at heating rate of 5K / min. Samples were analysed in triplicate.

The control sample (without fiber addition) was characterized by the lowest enthalpy. The highest enthalpy in the case of the addition of fiber with shorter fiber length was found in bread with 6% wheat and 6% potato fiber. At 24 hours after baking, it was found that the enthalpy of the control sample decreased. The same result was obtained in the analysis with the addition of 2% potato fiber with a shorter fiber and 2% oat fiber with a longer fiber. The greatest loss of water was recorded for bread with the addition of 6% oat fiber with shorter fiber. At 72 hours after baking, the test with the addition of 2% oat fiber with a shorter fiber, 6% potato fiber with a longer fiber, and the control sample were characterized by the highest loss of water. In the analysis with the addition of fiber with longer fiber length in the amount of 2% wheat, potato and 4% wheat, there was an increase in water content in the crumb compared to the research after baking.

A significant effect of the fiber addition on the staling of wheat bread was found. Hardness of the crumb on the day of baking increased with higher fiber content. In the majority of samples with the addition of fiber, the moisture content of the crumb increased during storage.

  • Open access
  • 26 Reads
Towards enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system of C.melo peels

Melon (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae family) is an important horticultural crop worldwide, cultivated in temperate climate countries from America and Europe to arid areas in Asia and Africa.

Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L., var. reticulatus) is of incredible economic worldwide diffusion due to its sweetness, juicy taste, pleasing flavour, and nutritional value. It contains huge quantities of vitamins A, C and microelements, such as potassium and magnesium, and also it was considered one of the best source of antioxidants. In particular, flavonoids and phenolic acids were found to be the most polyphenols.

Moreover, cantaloupe has been shown healthy properties; analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, diuretic and anti-diabetic were reported in recent studies.

This research aims to provide additional information on peels from melons of an Italian cantaloupe cultivar. Fruits were harvested at different maturity, ranging from the unripe to overripe condition, and antioxidant enzyme (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) activities were measured on crude extracts. Moreover, in order to gain a broad understanding of antioxidant system of C. melo, polyphenols, ortho-diphenols and flavonoids contents were carried out on peels, also to verify their potential exploitation as biomass yet rich of high-added value molecules.

Our results demonstrate that cantaloupe peels can be considered a prospective source of natural antioxidants, enzymatic and non-enzymatic, with potential applications in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic companies.

  • Open access
  • 73 Reads
Chick’n Fiber: Development of Breading Mix using Banana (Musa sapientum var. lacatan) Peel as a Good Source of Dietary Fiber

Banana is one of the fruit crops that is mostly consumed and produced in the Philippines (PSA, 2017). As a result, the banana peels (BPs) are neglected as a waste. Furthermore, numerous studies have investigated and stated that the BP is a good source of dietary fiber (DF). This study aims to develop a breading mix (BM), determine the most acceptable formulation of BM with BP, and evaluate its nutrient and microbial content. One (1) control commercial BM and three (3) BM with different formulations, substitution of all-purpose flour (APF) with partially fine dried banana peel (PFDBP) for 25%, 30%, and 35% in production of BM formulation, were tested in terms of nutrient and microbiological content. For sensory evaluation, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was conducted by 11 trained panelists and Consumer Acceptability Test was facilitated by 50 untrained panelists using the 9-point hedonic scale, utilizing chicken breast fillet as carrier. The statistical treatments used were weighted mean and one-factor repeated measures analysis of variance. The BM formulations produced were all found to be high in total dietary fiber (TDF) except for the control. Hence, it was proven that BP is a suitable dietary source for the BM formulations. Furthermore, the BM with DF had a lower fat content as compared to control due to its low oil-holding capacity that is beneficial with fried foods. Apart from color, all of the BM samples tested on pan-fried chicken breast fillet were found to be comparable to the sensory characteristics of the control. Therefore, the most favorable sample was BM A, which contains 25% substitution of APF with PFDBP, as it has shown an impressive result regarding TDF, fat analysis, and microbiological analysis, and in evaluation in terms of its sensory attributes.

  • Open access
  • 62 Reads
Analyzing botanical origin of honey content via metabarcoding

Currently, honey fraud and adulteration have become a global issue. Due to the ongoing finding of new ways to circumvent old analyses, new analysis techniques are being evolved. One of the molecular-based techniques, DNA metabarcoding, allows for the rapid and accurate identification of short genetic markers in the DNA of various species by matching them with reference sequences. Using this identification, it is frequently able to go beyond the species and determine the regional variants and geographic origin of the product. In addition to high throughput sequencing, metabarcoding is presented as an impartial method for determining the taxonomic composition of complicated materials. This study evaluated the applicability of the “DNA from honey” based approach by developing metabarcoding procedure.

A total of twenty varieties of honey were acquired from local markets. Following pretreatment, DNA was extracted from 20 samples using the optimized process, and PCR amplifications were conducted with primers targeting the P6-loop region of the trnL gene for the plant. Twenty honey samples were evaluated in a single tube, in addition to the analysis of a single flower honey. PCR yields were indexed using an adaptor ligation procedure for a 2x150bp pair-ended 300K read per sample and examined by high throughput sequencing. The terminal of the Linux/Unix-based operating system was used to analyze the sequencing data using several pipelines.

Each of the targeted taxa had a ≥97% match to a species in NCBI GenBank. Our results confirmed the vast majority of the species listed on the product label. Twenty percent of the raw data permitted identification of the species listed on the label. Additionally, the percentage of matches at the genus level exceeds 80%. In mixed honey, 90% of the honey was found to be flower honey. Some species were not identified and necessitate additional research for verification.

  • Open access
  • 85 Reads
How iron combined with prebiotics and lactoferrin can favor a healthy gut microbiota in infants living in rural Africa – an in vitro study
, , , , ,

Iron fortification in infants living in rural areas of Africa has been associated with gut dysbiosis and higher rates of infection which imposes an additional health risk. Ongoing cohort studies assess the protective effect of prebiotics and lactoferrin, which aim to favor a healthy gut microbiota. Relevant ex vivo studies are needed to investigate the mode of action on the gut microbiota directly to further improve nutritional intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of galacto-oligosaccharides and lactoferrin combined with iron on the gut microbiota of infants living in a rural area of Kenya. We used the in vitro continuous fermentation model PolyFermS to cultivate and treat the fecal microbiota of two 6-months-old Kenyan infants in conditions selected to closely mimic their colon and diet (milk and maize porridge). Iron combined with galacto-oligosaccharides induced a strong metabolic and compositional response. In microbiota 1 and 2, acetate increased by 45 mM and 16 mM, respectively, concomitant with an increase in Bifidobacterium of 0.6 log and 0.7 log, respectively. In microbiota 1 also propionate increased by 10 mM while in microbiota 2 also butyrate increased by 15 mM. We further observed a decrease in Clostridium perfringens in microbiota 1 of 1.3 log and a decrease in Clostridium difficile of 0.3 log in microbiota 2. A trend towards a synergistic effect against Clostridium perfringens was observed upon combination of iron, galacto-oligosaccharides and lactoferrin. Surprisingly, iron alone at a dose of 5 mg/L did not affect the ex vivo colon microbiotas, which hints for a host-dependent mode of action. In conclusion, galacto-oligosaccharides promote the Kenyan infant’s beneficial gut microbes and the production of metabolites thereby preventing outgrowth of enteropathogens. Next, the effect of treatment-modified microbial metabolites on the host-microbe interaction will be assessed using in vitro cell models.

  • Open access
  • 47 Reads
Physicochemical evaluation of preparations obtained as a result of enzymatic modification of lysozyme with pepsin and trypsin

Lysozyme is a 14.3 kDa protein consisting of 129 amino acids. Modifications of this molecule lead to oligomers and dimers, but more and more attempts are made to break down the lysozyme monomer into smaller molecules. The peptides obtained as a result of these processes can have bioactive properties, thanks to which they can be used in the food, pharmaceutical and medical industries. The aim of the research was to develop a method for the preparation and analytical evaluation of bioactive lysozyme derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolytic catalysis of native lysozyme derived from chicken egg white (Leśnierowski G. Eta al. 2012; Leśnierowski G. Eta al. 2020). The modification was carried according to the modified method Carillo W. et al. 2014. The test material was a 3% aqueous solution of commercially available native lysozyme from Belovo (Belgium). The hydrolytic catalysis was carried out with the use of specifically selected proteolytic enzymes, ie trypsin and pepsin. The hydrolysis processes were run for 60 minutes in the Syncore Analyst analytical reactor by Büchi (Switzerland) and the chemical reactor by Eppendorf Thermo Mixer (Germany). The factors differentiating the hydrolysis variants were: pH of the mixture (2, 4, 6) and temperature (40, 55 and 70 ° C). The hydrolysis reactions were stopped by heating the mixture to 80 ° C for a period of 5 min. The effectiveness of the process conditions was assessed by electrophoresis and densitometry. The next stage of the research was to evaluate the hydrolytic, hydrophobic and antioxidant activity of the preparations (Leśnierowski G. et. al. 2012). The conditions for carrying out the lysozyme modification had a significant impact on the electrophoretic separation, as well as on the hydrolytic, hydrophobic and antioxidant activity of the obtained preparations. The highest percentage of peptides was obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin at the temperature of 70 ° C and pH 4. The obtained preparations obtained as a result of the modification are characterized by significantly higher (p <0.05) antioxidant and hydrolytic activity compared to the lysozyme monomer.


Carillo W., Garcia-Ruiz A., Recio I., Moreno-Arribas M.V., 2014: Ancibaterial Activity of Hen Egg White Lysozyme Modified by Heat and Enzymatic Treatments against Oenological Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria. Journal of Food Protection, 77(10), 1732-1739

Leśnierowski G., Cegielska-Radziejewska R., 2012: Potential possibilities of production, modification and practical application of lysozyme. Acta scientarium polonorum. Technologia alimentarna, 11(3), 223-230

Leśnierowski G., Yang T., 2020: Lysozyme and its modified forms: A critical appraisal of selected properties and potential. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 107, 333-342

  • Open access
  • 35 Reads

Currently, the food industry is facing a wide demand for natural foods that provide benefits for the consumer's health. In this sense, a trend in food technology is to obtain bioactive compounds from different food by-products with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral properties, among others, that allow their recovery through the circular economy model. In this study, the chemical and nutritional composition was evaluated in terms of phenolic compounds (PC), fatty acid profile (FA) and mineral composition, in several by-products of Olea europaea L.: pomace, olive water, olive leaves, fiber crude, and an extract obtained by extraction with supercritical fluid (SCFE) at 20 and 24 MPa of the olive fiber. PC quantification was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the fatty acid profile was obtained by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and the mineral content was determined. by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In all the byproducts studied, dihydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxytyrosol and oleacein were found as main PCs. Olive fiber presented the highest content of hydroxytyrosol (171.2 mg/kg) and oleacin (150 mg/kg). Regarding the content of FA, a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) between 71 - 73% was reported in all the by-products of the olive, highlighting oleic acid as the main FA. The fraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) corresponded to 10 - 12%, with α-linolenic acid being the main compound. With respect to the mineral profile, some differences were observed, the pomace and the fiber presented relevant values of calcium (4 - 6.5 g/kg), potassium (0.5 g/kg) and magnesium (0.5 g/kg). while the oily extract did not report significant levels of minerals. Taking into account the previous results, the by-products resulting from the olive industry can be considered as a valuable source of bioactive molecules, including PC, AG and minerals, which provide important beneficial effects for health, mainly for the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress, and that could be used as novel natural ingredients for incorporation into functional foods or nutraceuticals, however, both in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to confirm the potential in humans and demonstrate the safety of these ingredients.

  • Open access
  • 95 Reads
Benzaldehyde Use to Protect Seeds from Foodborne Fungal Pathogens

Contamination of food/crops by fungi is a recurring food safety and security issue. There is a limited efficacy with conventional seed sanitation methods, directly affecting food safety. For instance, the insufficient elimination of mycotoxin-producing fungi contaminating seed surfaces can result in high mycotoxin contamination. In 2020, peanut seeds in southeast United States exhibited significantly low germination rate during crop season, which was preceded by a high frequency of aflatoxin (AF) contamination in 2019. The prevalence of the Aspergillus flavus fungicide-resistant strains was the root cause of the high AF contamination and poor seed quality. Heat treatment (pasteurization/blanching) is one of the strategies preventing microbial contamination in agricultural/food production. However, excessive heat treatment can negatively affect the quality of the crops/food products. Hurdle technology is an approach where co-application of different types of preservation method at reduced individual intensities achieves increases in the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments. In this study, a new seed sanitation formula was investigated by examining Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) molecules such as natural compounds/structural derivatives or redox-active molecules repurposed from FDA-approved food additives as active ingredients. Selected benzo derivatives, previously shown to inhibit mycotoxin production, could function as heat-sensitizing agents, enhancing the efficacy of sanitation against fungi. When benzo derivatives and mild heat (57.5 oC) were co-administered for 90 seconds (in vitro), the co-application achieved > 99.999% microbial elimination, while independent application of either agent alone allowed pathogen survival. For seed treatments, co-application of a benzo derivative (3 mM) and mild heat (50 oC) (20 to 30 minutes) completely inhibited the germination of aflatoxin-producing A. flavus contaminated on Brassica rapa Pekinensis (Chinese cabbage hybrid) seeds, whereas seed germination rate was unaffected. In summary, benzo derivative-based heat sensitization developed could be a promising tool to achieve safe and cost-effective pathogen control in agriculture/food production.

  • Open access
  • 63 Reads
FTIR Spectroscopy in Combination with Chemometrics for the Estimation of Grape Pomace Geographical Origin

Grape is one of the world’s largest fruit crops and grape pomace is one of wastes generated by wine-making processes. According to Greek Ministry of Rural Development and Food in 2017, Greek Ionian islands produced 1,179.25 tons of grapes for wine making and 175.12 tons of them were grape pomace. Protected Designation of Origin of Cephalonia Robola wine and other traditional grape varieties are of particular interest. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in combination with chemometric analysis is among one promising analytical method for determining the approach geographical origin of them. In this study, FTIR spectra of 31 grape pomace samples from three geographical regions, Cephalonia (n=13), Zakynthos (n=9) and Corfu (n=9), were obtained in triplicates, using a Nicolet 6700 FTIR in the Diffuse Reflectance (DRIFTS) mode with DTGS detector. Collection and processing of spectral data was carried out using OMNIC ver. 7.3. Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed using the spectral region 1900-600 cm-1 in SPSS software ver. 25.0. The equivalence between the groups was checked with Box’s M test (p >0.001). Results showed that five steps were formed. The percentage of samples that were classified correctly was 90.3% while with the method of cross-validation was 87.1%. The Wilks λ values for the two discriminant functions had p <0.05, indicating a good discriminant power of the model. Eigenvalues suggest that the first discriminant function was more discriminating with high canonical correlation (0.846) which explained 84.6% of the total variance. Results showed that FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques can be used for the differentiation of grape pomace geographical origin.

  • Open access
  • 107 Reads
Caracterización química y nutricional de subproductos de la industria vitivinícola. Fuente de ingredientes saludables para la formulación de nutracéuticos y alimentos funcionales

La industria alimentaria genera grandes cantidades de residuos orgánicos, que generalmente se acumulan en vertederos o se queman, provocando problemas medioambientales. Sin embargo, muchos estudios indican que estos residuos son ricos en compuestos bioactivos, por lo que podrían ser revalorizados para su transformación en productos de alto valor añadido, favoreciendo así la economía circular y sostenible, reduciendo el impacto ambiental y el cambio climático. Se estima que la industria del vino ( Vitis viniferaL.) produce hasta un 30% en peso de residuos en relación con el material utilizado, estos incluyen tallos, pieles, semillas y orujos, que son fuentes dietéticas ricas en compuestos fenólicos, minerales, ácidos grasos y fibra dietética, que han demostrado actividades beneficiosas para la salud, incluyendo actividades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas, antiinflamatorias e incluso anticancerígenas, tanto in vitro como in vivo. En este sentido, se realizó una caracterización química (minerales, compuestos fenólicos y perfil de ácidos grasos) en semillas deshidratadas y molidas de Vitis vinifera.L, y en el extracto oleoso, obtenido por fluidos supercríticos (SCFE) a 20 MPa. La cuantificación de minerales se realizó por espectrometría de emisión óptica de plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-OES), la identificación y cuantificación del perfil fenólico se realizó por cromatografía líquida - espectrometría de masas (LC-MS/MS) y el perfil de ácidos grasos se estudiado por cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID). Los principales minerales encontrados fueron calcio, potasio y magnesio. Destacando el calcio 22,66 g/kg en el extracto oleoso frente a las semillas 7,8 g/kg. La concentración de potasio fue de 3,9 g/kg en semillas y 1,53 g/kg en el extracto, mientras que 1,4 g/kg y 0,59 g/kg de magnesio correspondieron a semillas y extracto, respectivamente. En cuanto al perfil de polifenoles, las semillas contienen principalmente ácido dihidroxibenzoico 42.580 mg/kg, catequina 81,05 mg/kg, quercetina 4.856 mg/kg y resveratrol 1 mg/kg como principales fenoles, mientras que el extracto oleoso presenta principalmente oleaceína 156.942 mg/kg, hidroxitirosol 10.226 mg/kg y tirosol 8.644 mg/kg. Adicionalmente se obtuvo un perfil de ácidos grasos saludables, siendo los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFAs) la fracción mayoritaria 71.4%, destacándose los ácidos oleico 16868 mg/kg, y ácido linoleico 82606 mg/kg. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que estos subproductos podrían ser aplicados como parte de la formulación de alimentos funcionales, nutracéuticos y cosméticos, dirigidos a un amplio nicho de población para la prevención de diferentes enfermedades. se obtuvo un perfil de ácidos grasos saludables, siendo los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFAs) la fracción mayoritaria 71.4%, destacándose los ácidos oleico 16868 mg/kg, y ácido linoleico 82606 mg/kg. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que estos subproductos podrían ser aplicados como parte de la formulación de alimentos funcionales, nutracéuticos y cosméticos, dirigidos a un amplio nicho de población para la prevención de diferentes enfermedades. se obtuvo un perfil de ácidos grasos saludables, siendo los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFAs) la fracción mayoritaria 71.4%, destacándose los ácidos oleico 16868 mg/kg, y ácido linoleico 82606 mg/kg. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que estos subproductos podrían ser aplicados como parte de la formulación de alimentos funcionales, nutracéuticos y cosméticos, dirigidos a un amplio nicho de población para la prevención de diferentes enfermedades.